1 China From Past to Present

Connecticut College Digital Commons @ Connecticut College Student Foreign Language Research Mellon Initiative on Foreign Languages Fall 2011 Confucian Revival and School Culture Richard Worsman Connecticut

Units of Credit: One Year (Elective) GRADES 9, 10, 11, 12 ANCIENT WORLD HISTORY Prerequisites: None Course Overview: World History is designed to trace the development of humans from earliest times to

1 Pre-Test Directions: Label each statement with a T if true or F if false. 1. Christopher Columbus crossed the Atlantic Ocean to try to find North and South A

The Great Wall of China: Teacher s Guide Grade Level: 6-8 Curriculum Focus: World History Lesson Duration: Two class periods Program Description Stretching 1,500 miles from the Yellow Sea to the central

44 Crossword Puzzle Across: 3. This desert extends into northern China. 7. This form of government exists in the People s Republic of China today. 8. These men are the Buddhists monks of Tibet. 9. This is the largest nation to the north of China. 10. These towering Buddhists temples are common in China. Down: 1. This ancient Chinese philosopher devised important guidelines for proper behavior and good government. 2. This ancient Chinese religion taught people how to live in harmony with nature. 4. The ancient book called the I Ching is devoted to explaining the lines in these symbols. 5. This range of mountains lies between China and India. 6. This island country was once ruled from Beijing.

Editor Karen Tam Froloff Editor/Consultant Kiran Prasad Upadhyay Managing Editor Karen J. Goldfluss, M.S. Ed. Editor-in-Chief Sharon Coan, M.S. Ed. Illustrator Agnes S. Palinay Cover Artist Leslie Palmer

33 Video Quiz Answer each of the following questions either True or False: 1. True or False? The Peoples Republic of China is a communist country. 2. True or False? Mandarin is the official language of China, but many dialects are spoken. 3. True or False? Confucius developed a system of rules for proper behavior. 4. True or False? Buddhism began in China. 5. True or False? Feng shui was the first emperor of China.

KS2 RE Quiz Buddhism Buddhism focuses on spiritual development in order to reach Enlightenment. Buddhism is an ancient religion – over 2,500 years old! Buddhists believe that wisdom can be learned by observation,

Buddhism Leah Fishman What is Buddhism? Buddhism is a religions of about 300 million people around the world. It started about 2,500 years ago when the Buddha himself reached enlightenment. You can be

Name Class Date Ancient China Section 4 MAIN IDEAS 1. Han dynasty government was based on the ideas of Confucius. 2. Family life was supported and strengthened in Han China. 3. The Han made many achievements


Section 3 Beginnings of Buddhism Chapter 4 Ancient India Objectives Learn about the Buddha and his teachings. Find out how Buddhism was received inside and outside India. Key Terms meditate to focus the

Ancient China 1. Analects the collected sayings and teachings of Confucius 2. Bronze Age (3300 1200 B.C.) time when people made weapons and tools from bronze 3. calligraphy artistic form of ancient Chinese

iis stone carving represents the Bui founder of the Buddhist religion. CHAPTER The Story of Buddhism 16.1 Introduction In Chapter 15, you read about Hinduism, Indias first great religion. In this chapter,

97a Map of Asia 2004 Ancient Lights Education Media Published and Distributed by United Learning

BYkids School Guide MY COUNTRY IS TIBET ABOUT THIS GUIDE This BYkids School Guide is designed to help teachers expand students use of this film from passive watching to active discussion and deeply personalized

Ancient India Creating a Mandala of Hindu Beliefs Hinduism Hinduism is an ancient religion whose origins predate recorded history It has no single human founder and has developed over thousands of years

66 Vocabulary List ancestor – Any person from whom ones father or mother is descended. ancestor worship – Performing religious ceremonies or reciting prayers in honor of ones ancestors. Buddha – A prince named Siddhartha Gautama who lived over 2,500 years ago in India. He gave up a life of riches to try to find a way to end human suffering. Through his efforts, he achieved great insight or enlightenment. The word Buddha means Enlightened One. Buddhism – The ancient religion based on the teachings of Buddha. communism – A form of government based on principles of communal, or public ownership, of land and factories. The Communist Party (whose members are not elected by a vote of the people) runs governments in communist countries. compassion – To share the pain and suffering of another human being. Confucianism – One of the three traditional religions of China. Confucianism is based on the teachings of a philosopher named Confucius. He came up with a system of rules for proper behavior and for good government that played an extremely important role in shaping the civilization of China. Confucius – An ancient Chinese philosopher ( B.C) who developed rules for personal behavior that promoted mutual respect, generosity, honor, strong family bonds, and a deep sense of duty to society. culture – The customs and traditions that a group of people share such as their religious beliefs, rituals, holidays, food, music, dance, and clothing. dialect – A variety of a spoken language that is derived from a standard parent language. For example, in China the Cantonese dialect of the official Mandarin language is spoken in the region of Canton, while people in Shanghai speak another dialect of Mandarin. divinities – Gods, goddesses, and other sacred beings dynasty – A powerful family that produces a series of rulers over several generations. feminine – Qualities that are traditionally associated with females; for example, motherliness, gentleness. feng shui – An ancient Chinese art based on the concepts of yin and yang that is employed in designing buildings, gardens, arranging furniture, etc., to create a harmonious environment. Gobi Desert – The coldest and northernmost desert in the world, located in southern Mongolia and northern China. harmony – A pleasant outcome resulting from nonaggression, peace, order, and balance. Traditionally in China, the achievement of harmony with nature, between the government and the governed, and within in the family was considered to be of utmost value. hexagram – A mystical six-line symbol composed of a pair of trigrams (see trigram on the next page). These six lines can be represented by six coin tosses. The significance of each line of each of the 64 different hexagrams is analyzed in the I Ching. Himalayan Mountains – The highest range of mountains in the world located between India and China. I Ching – Ancient book that discusses the meaning of lines in the 64 hexagrams and that is often consulted when making important decisions. immortality – Not subject to death, able to live forever. lamas – Vajrayana Buddhist monks who live mainly in the mountainous Tibetan region of China. Lamas are also found in Mongolia, Bhutan, and Nepal. Lama, Dalai – The supreme spiritual leader of the Vajrayana Buddhists. The Dalai Lama led the government of Tibet when it was independent from China. Lao-tzu (Laozi) – Ancient philosopher who lived around 500 B.C. Many people believe he was the founder of Taoism and source of many of the ideas found in the Book of Tao (Tao-Te-Ching). Mandarin – The official language of China. The Chinese speak several different dialects of Mandarin. masculine – Qualities that are generally associated to being male; for example, fatherliness, strength. enlightenment – A religious experience marked by vividly clear insight and understanding. meditation – Certain religious practices that involve developing mental control and relaxation.

6. TAOISM AND CONFUCIANISM Chapter Overview At this point, putting the subject matter of Chapter 6 into a partial, brief, geographical and chronological perspective might be helpful for students. Something

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76a Name Vocabulary List (continued) and Activity Mi-Lo-Fo – A beloved legendary character in China also known as the laughing Buddha. Mongolia – A large country that lies to the north of China. monk – A person who devotes his life to religious practice by following strict rules of behavior. moral – Concerned with developing character and a strong sense of right and wrong. Nationalist China – The nation of Taiwan. The Chinese nationalists were defeated by the communists and set up their own government on the island of Taiwan. offerings – Sacred gifts to the gods and other divinities such as food, music, perfumed water, and incense. pagoda – A type of Buddhist temple built in the form of a tower. prayer flags – Small flags with prayers written on them that are found in certain sacred Buddhist places. When the flags flutter in the wind, it is believed that the prayers will be sent out into the world. prayer wheels – Drums, found in certain sacred Buddhist places, which are turned by believers to send prayers out into the world. People s Republic of China – The communist nation of China. rural – An area located far away from any big city. shrine – A sacred place. Shrines are often devoted to particular saints or gods and can be places of pilgrimage. stupa – A certain type of Buddhist shrine, or pagoda, that usually holds sacred images, offerings, and relics. Taiwan – The Nation of Nationalist China. tai chi – An old spiritual and physical discipline that is commonly practiced in China and that seeks to balance the yin and yang energies. Tao – A mystical silent, all pure, all-powerful force that existed before there was heaven or an earth. Taoists believe everything in the universe arises from the Tao. Tao-Te-Ching – The Book of Tao, a mystical text that is thought to have been written by Lao-tzu and upon which the religion of Taoism is based. temple – A building used for certain types of religious worship. Tibetan Buddhism – Same as Vajrayana Buddhism. Tibetan Plateau – A vast area marked by high elevation and cold temperatures, located in the Tibetan region of western China. tradition – a well established way of doing things; a custom. trigram – An ancient Chinese mystical three-line symbol in which broken lines represent yin energy and unbroken lines represent yang energy: The eight possible three- line combinations of broken and unbroken lines are called the Eight Trigrams and they have long been considered to have deep spiritual meaning. Vajrayana Buddhism – One of the major branches of Buddhism centered mainly in Tibet. Also called Tibetan Buddhism, Mantrayana Buddhism, or Lamaism. yang – Yang is the energy associated with masculinity, heaven, the daytime, the sun, and strength. yin – Yin is the energy associated with femininity, the Earth, the night, the moon, and softness Vocabulary Activity: Directions: By consulting the vocabulary list find the correct word (or words) to fill in the blank. 1. He lived in a area far out in the country. 2. It was a well established at Grandma Lees house to serve roast duckling on New Years Day. 3. He wished to be a person and do the right thing. 4. The man from Canton was unable to understand him because he spoke the of Shanghai. 5. His mothers lived in Beijing a thousand years ago. Taoism – One of the ancient religions of China. The original Taoists sought to live in harmony with nature Ancient Lights Education Media Published and Distributed by United Learning

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5Name 5 Timeline and Timeline Activity 5000 B.C. – Rice is cultivated in southern China 3000 B.C. – Plows are used in China for the first time B.C. – Shang Dynasty begins B.C. – Chinese priests inscribe special signs on oracle bones that are used to look into the future. The practice of coin tossing or drawing straws associated with the I Ching probably developed from this B.C. – The Zhou people of western China overthrow the Shang Dynasty and establish a new dynasty. 551 B.C. – Confucius is born. 500 B.C. – Lao-tzu, founder of Taoism, is active. 500 to 400 B.C. – Buddha is born in what is now southern Nepal. 221 B.C. – Qin Dynasty begins, time of the first emperor and first strong central government. 214 B.C. – Construction of the Great Wall of China begins. 202 B.C. – Beginning of Han Dynasty. China becomes a powerful empire and Chinese culture flourishes. 200 B.C. – Tao-Te-Ching, the Book of Tao, begins to be compiled. 105 A.D. – Paper is invented in China. 581 to Reunification of China during the Sui Dynasty. Grand Canal is built for transportation. 618 to Tang Dynasty, literature and arts flourish in China. 960 to Song Dynasty. Chinas population exceeds 100 million people. Neo-Confucianism becomes the official state philosophy Marco Polo arrives in China from Venice, Italy. He remains in China for 17 years. His reports stimulate Europeans interest in China Mongols (people from Mongolia) under Kublai Khan defeat the Song Dynasty and take control of China. The Mongols found the Yuan Dynasty Chinese drive out the Mongols. Ming Dynasty begins Construction begins on the Forbidden City in Beijing to Qing Dynasty. Manchu people rule China Hong Kong becomes a British colony to Millions die in bloody warfare of the Taiping Rebellion End of the Qing Dynasty as the Republic of China is founded to govern China. Sun Yat-sen is the first president, but only serves for six weeks The Nationalist Chinese under Chang-Kaishek unify China under one government Communist rebellion led by Mao Zedong begins to War with Japan shatters China Chinese communists defeat the Nationalist Chinese and establish the Peoples Republic of China. Timeline Activity By looking at the Timeline, fill in the correct year: 1. Construction of the Great Wall of China began in the year. 2. Macro Polo arrived in China in the year. 3. Paper was invented in China in the year. 4. Chinas capital moved to Beijing in the year. 5. Confucius was born in the year.

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1 Pre-Test Directions: Answer each of the following either True or False: 1. India is the only country in the modern world that has more people than China. 2. Confucianism played a major role in shaping the civilization of China. 3. Buddhism began in China. 4. The concepts of yin and yang have always played an important role in Chinese thinking. 5. The Peoples Republic of China is the largest democracy in Asia.

Name: Instructions: If testing on-line please enter your let password which is — hcms Copyright 2000-2002 Measured Progress, All Rights Reserved : Use the map below to answer question 1. 1. Which country

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Name Period Date Ancient China: The Qin and Han Dynasties** 246BCE – Warring States Period Zhou Dynasty has almost no power in China Qin Shi Huangdi comes to power in 246BCE as king of state of Qin Conquers

Timeline I Ching JeeLoo Liu.. from An Introduction to Chinese Philosophy Early Vedas. 1500 Upanishads. 1000 Siddhartha Gautama. 563-483 BCE Bhagavad Gita. 200-100 BCE 1000 BCE 500 BCE 0 500 CE 1000 CE

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87 Map Exercise of China Directions: On the map of Asia (Blackline Master 7b) do the following things: 1. Label the following nations that border China: Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Mongolia, Vietnam, Russia, and North Korea. 2. Label the China Sea and the Yellow Sea. 3. Label three of Chinas main cities, Beijing, Hong Kong, and Shanghai. 4. Label Taiwan. 5. Draw in lines for the Yellow River and the Yangtze River Ancient Lights Education Media Published and Distributed by United Learning

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22 Post-Test True or False Directions: Answer the following either True or False. 1. China is the birthplace of the worlds oldest living civilization. 2. Chinas population is evenly distributed from east to west. 3. The three traditional religions of China are Confucianism, Hinduism, and Buddhism. 4. Confucianism provides a system of rules for proper behavior and for good government. 5. China had a history of religious tolerance up until its communist era. 6. China is bordered by five different nations. 7. The ancient Chinese concepts of yin and yang strongly influenced Taoism. 8. The ancient book called the I Ching contains the complete Buddhist scriptures. 9. Buddhism originated in India and was brought to China. 10. Chinas population exceeds three billion people. Fill in the blanks: 1. is the official language of China, however, many other are spoken. 2. The two main rivers in China are the River and the River. 3. The Mountains along the border of China are the highest mountains on Earth. Essay: Describe in as much depth as possible the history and beliefs of either Buddhism, Confucianism, or Taoism. (Select just one to discuss.)

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