Ancient Egypt 101

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These rulers, who were not always men nor Egyptian, were considered protectors of the people and served as divine liaisons between humanity and the hundreds of gods they worshipped.

Pharaoh, which means great house in Egyptian, was never the rulers formal title. It only became synonymous with the ruling individual in modern times thanks to its use in the Hebrew Bible.

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Preparing for this journey to the gods also involved mummifying ones body. The deceaseds corpse was embalmed, wrapped in hundreds of yards of linen, and placed inside the tomb so the body could reanimated in the afterlife. To this day, structures like the Great Pyramids are a testament to the role of religion in ancient Egyptians lives — but they also represent the innovative and cultural might of the Egyptian people. Innovations in mathematics and written language, in particular, propelled their civilization to success. Math, specifically measurement mathematics, helped Egyptians understand and harness their world with numbers like no other civilization had before. They developed a new form of measurement, called the cubit. It was used to design massive structures, such as the Great Pyramid, with remarkable geometrical precision. The Egyptians also measured time. By combining mathematics with astronomy, they established a 24-hour division to the day

To prepare their journey into the afterlife, the rulers constructed elaborate tombs, including the Great Pyramids at Giza and underground mausoleums in the Valley of the Kings.

The Ancient Egyptian civilization, famous for its pyramids, pharaohs, mummies, and tombs, flourished for thousands of years. But what was its lasting impact? Learn how Ancient Egypt contributed to society with its many cultural developments, particularly in language and mathematics.

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The Ancient Egyptian civilization, famous for its pyramids, pharaohs, mummies, and tombs, flourished for thousands of years. But what was its lasting impact? Learn how Ancient Egypt contributed to society with its many cultural developments, particularly in language and mathematics.

After the rulers passed away, Ancient Egyptians believed they then became gods.

and created a solar calendar, which was the first dating system in history to feature 365 days in one year. Lastly, Egyptians developed methods to measure and survey land around the Nile River. These civil engineering feats made way for the construction of dams, canals, and irrigation systems that helped farming and agriculture to flourish in the Nile Valley. In addition to mathematical concepts, the ancient Egyptians also created written languages to describe the world around them. The oldest and probably most well-known of these is hieroglyphic writing. This system was developed around 3150 B.C. during the Old Kingdom and has over 700 pictorial characters. It was used to inscribe on monuments and pottery and predominantly served a decorative or ceremonial purpose. Soon after, another ancient form of writing, called hieratic, developed out of the hieroglyphic system. It was a form of cursive that was written in ink and served a more functional purpose. Unlike its more formal predecessor, hieratic was written on another ancient Egyptian innovation: papyrus. Papyrus was a type of paper derived from the papyrus plant, which grew plentifully along the Nile River. This medium gave the ancient Egyptians a new avenue of communication and record-keeping that allowed their civilizations administrative might to grow and their culture to spread for thousands of years. As with all great empires, ancient Egypt came to an end. It was eventually conquered due to a series of invasions, including those by the Persian Empire in the 4th century B.C. and the Roman Empire around 30 B.C. Not many civilizations can claim a lifespan of over 3,000 years, let alone one that made vast cultural contributions that still resonate in modern times. Ancient Egypt, with its linguistic and mathematical innovations, spirituality and religion, and extensive political and military might set a high standard for all civilizations that followed.

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The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3,000 years and became one of the most powerful and iconic civilizations in history. At its height, ancient Egypts empire stretched as far north as modern-day Syria and as far south as todays Sudan. But long before it was an empire, ancient Egypt was a series of small, independent city-states that bloomed along north Africas Nile River. The city-states were divided into two regions and named according to the flow of the Nile: Upper Egypt in the south, which was upstream, and Lower Egypt in the north, which was downstream. By about 3100 B.C., the two halves united, thereby creating one Egyptian state that lasted for millennia.

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The reign of this civilization can be divided into three major periods of prosperity (called the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms) and two periods of instability in between (called the First and Second Intermediate Periods). Guiding the Egyptian people through all these periods was a succession of about 300 rulers often referred to as pharaohs.

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Rulers filled their tombs with all the items they could need in the afterlife, including gold, jewelry, food, drink, and even pets.

The Ancient Egyptian civilization, famous for its pyramids, pharaohs, mummies, and tombs, flourished for thousands of years. But what was its lasting

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