Culture of Egypt

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During theGreco-Roman period(332 BC − AD 639), Egyptian literature was translated into other languages, and Greco-Roman literature fused with native art into a new style of writing. From this period comes theRosetta Stone, which became the key to unlocking the mysteries of Egyptian writing to modern scholarship. The great city ofAlexandriaboasted its famousLibraryof almost half a million handwritten books during the third century BC. Alexandrias center of learning also produced the Greek translation of theHebrew Bible, theSeptuagint.

Considered to be the first engineer, architect and physician in history known by name,Imhotepdesigned thePyramid of Djoser(theStep Pyramid) atSa电话arainEgyptaround26302611 BC, and may have been responsible for the first known use ofcolumnsinarchitecture. The Egyptian historianManethocredited him with inventing stone-dressed building during Djosers reign, though he was not the first to actually build with stone. Imhotep is also believed to have foundedEgyptian medicine, being the author of the worlds earliest known medical document, theEdwin Smith Papyrus.

Alexandria, being the center of the Hellenistic world, produced a number of great mathematicians, astronomers, and scientists such asCtesibiusPappus, andDiophantus. It also attracted scholars from all over the Mediterranean 0 asEratosthenesofCyrene.

Lady Tjepu, ca. 1390-1353 B.C.E.Brooklyn Museum

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Arabiccame to Egypt in the 7th century,[1]andEgyptian Arabichas become today the modern speech of the country. Of the many varieties of Arabic, it is the most widely spokensecond dialect, due to the influence of Egyptian cinema and media throughout the Arabic-speaking world.

In hisOptics, a work which survives only in an Arabic translation, he writes about properties oflight, includingreflectionrefractionandcolour. His other works includePlanetary Hypothesis,PlanisphaeriumandAnalemma. Ptolemys treatise on astrology, theTetrabiblos, was the most popularastrologicalwork of antiquity and also enjoyed great influence in theIslamicworld and the.

Egyptscontemporarydance scene is limited but very dynamic. One of the important element of the local independent art scene, contemporary dance in Egypt exists mostly throughout festivals and performances, and thanks to organizations such asCairo contemporary dance centerin Cairo orRezo Dancein Alexandria.

In modern times,archaeologyand the study of Egypts ancient heritage as the field ofEgyptologyhas become a major scientific pursuit in the country itself. The field began during theMiddle Ages, and has been led by Europeans and Westerners in modern times. The study of Egyptology, however, has in recent decades been taken up by Egyptian archæologists such asZahi Hawassand theSupreme Council of Antiquitieshe leads.

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Most of Arabic-language TV andcinemahas been notably affected by theEgyptiandialect, due to its simplicity.[citation needed]

Egyptian cinema has flourished since the 1930s.[6]As a result, the Egyptian capital has been dubbed theHollywood of the Middle East, where the world-renownedCairo International Film Festivalis held every year. The festival has been rated by theInternational Federation of Film Producers Associationsas being among the 11 top-class film festivals worldwide.[7]

Ptolemy was the author of two important scientific treatises. One is the astronomical treatise that is now known as theAlmagest(in Greek ά ύς, The Great Treatise). In this work, one of the most influential books of antiquity, Ptolemy compiled the astronomical knowledge of the ancient Greek andBabylonianworld. Ptolemys other main work is hisGeography. This too is a compilation, of what was known about the worldsgeographyin the Roman Empire in his time.

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Many Egyptians believed that when it came to a death of their Pharaoh, they would have to bury the Pharaoh deep inside the Pyramid. The ancient Egyptian literature dates back to theOld Kingdom, in the third millennium BC. Religious literature is best known for itshymnsto and its mortuary texts. The oldest extant Egyptian literature is thePyramid Texts: the mythology and rituals carved around the tombs of rulers. The later, secular literature of ancient Egypt includes the wisdom texts, forms of philosophical instruction. TheInstruction of Ptahhotep, for example, is a collation of moral proverbs by an Egto (the middle of the second millennium BC) seem to have been drawn from an elite administrative class, and were celebrated and revered into theNew Kingdom(to the end of the second millennium). In time, the Pyramid Texts becameCoffin Texts(perhaps after the end of the Old Kingdom), and finally, the mortuary literature produced its masterpiece, theBook of the Dead, during the New Kingdom.

ModernandcontemporaryEgyptian art can be as diverse as any works in the world art scene. Some well-known names includeMahmoud MokhtarAbdel Hadi Al GazzarFarouk HosnyGazbia SirryKamal AminHussein El GebalySawsan Amerand many others. Many artists in Egypt have taken on modern media such as digital art and this has been the theme of many exhibitions inCairoin recent times. There has also been a tendency to use the World Wide Web as an alternative outlet for artists and there is a strong Art-focused internet community on groups that have found origin in Egypt.

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ThecultureofEgypthas thousands of years ofrecorded historyAncient Egyptwas among the earliestcivilizationsin Africa. For millennia, Egypt maintained a strikingly unique, complex and stable culture that influenced later cultures of Europe. After the Pharaonic era, Egypt itself came under the influence of Hellenism, for a time Christianity and later, Christian culture.

Other popular sports in Egypt arebasketballhandballsquash, andtennis. Among all African nations, theEgypt national basketball teamholds the record for best performance at theBasketball World Cupand at theSummer Olympics.[4][5]Furthermore, the team has won a record number of 16 medals at theAfrican Championship. The Egyptian national squash team is always known for its fierce competition in worldwide championships, from the 1930s to today. Handball has become another increasingly popular sport among Egyptians as well. Since the early 1990s, theEgyptian national handball teamhas become a growing international force in the sport, winning regional and continental tournaments as well as reaching up to fourth place internationally in 2001. The Junior national handball team reached the first rank in 1993 under the lead of Captain Gamal Shams, and it hosted the tournament in 2010 setting a record in the audience number specially the match between Egypt and Denmark in the semifinals, the stadium was completely full.

Belly dance, orRaqs Sharqi(literally: oriental dancing) may have originated in Egypt, and today the country is considered the international center of the art.

See also:List of African writers (by country) Egypt

The Egyptians were one of the first major civilizations to codify design elements inart. Thewall paintingdone in the service of thePharaohsfollowed a rigid code of visual rules and meanings. Early Egyptian art is characterized by the absence oflinear perspective, which results in a seemingly flat space. These artists tended to create images based on what they knew, and not as much on what they saw. Objects in these artworks generally do not decrease in size as they increase in distance and there is little shading to indicatedepth. Sometimes, distance is indicated through the use oftiered space, where more distant objects are drawn higher above the nearby objects, but in the same scale and with no overlapping of forms. People and objects are almost always drawn in profile. Also, you may notice the people in Egyptian art are never facing forward. Archaeologists are not yet sure of why, but they are leaning towards the fact that artists status was low in the hierarchy so they could never be in front of a higher authority figure, and never be faced towards them.

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In the lower Nile Valley, aroundKom OmboandAswan, there are about 300,000 speakers ofNubian languages, mainlyNobiin, but also Kenuzi-Dongola. TheBerber languagesare represented bySiwi, spoken by about 5,000 around theSiwa Oasis. There are over a million speakers of theDomari language(anIndo-Aryan languagerelated toRomany), mostly living north ofCairo, and there are about 60,000Greekspeakers inAlexandria.

Ahmed H. Zewails website at CalTech

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1950 World Championship for Men. FIBA. 9 June 2012

Drep During the first few centuries of the Christian era, Egypt was the ultimate source of a great deal of ascetic literature in theCoptic language. Egyptian monasteries translated manyGreekandSyriacwords, which are now only extant in Coptic. UnderIslam, Egypt continued to be a great source of literary endeavor, now in theArabic language. In 970,al-Azhar Universitywas founded inCairo, which to this day remains the most important center ofSunni Islamiclearning. In the 12th century Egypt, the Jewish Talmudic scholarMaimonidesproduced his most important work.

The discovery of theRosetta Stone, a tablet written in ancient Greek, EgyptianDemoticscript, and Egyptian hieroglyphs, has partially been credited for the recent stir in the study of Ancient Egypt.Greek, a well-known language, gave linguists the ability to decipher the mysterious Egyptian hieroglyphic language. The ability to decipher hieroglyphics facilitated the translation of hundreds of the texts and inscriptions that were previously indecipherable, giving insight into Egyptian culture that would have otherwise been lost to the ages. The stone was discovered on July 15, 1799 in the port town of RosettaRosetta, Egypt, and has been held in theBritish Museumsince 1802.

The Koin dialect of theGreek languagewas important in Hellenistic Alexandria, and was used in the philosophy and science of that culture, and was later studied by Arabic scholars.

TheLighthouse of Alexandria, one of theSeven Wonders of the Ancient World, designed bySostratus of Cnidusand built during the reign ofPtolemy I Soterserved as the citys landmark, and later, lighthouse.

The Library of Alexandriaby Ellen N. Brundige

From Pharaohs Lips:Ancient Egyption Language in The Arabic of Today

In older times (1930s and 40s), Egypt was a powerhouse inweightliftingboxing, andwrestlingwith several Olympic and world championship medals.

Ptolemyis one of the most famous astronomers and geographers from Egypt, famous for his work inAlexandria. Born Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ύς ίς; c. 85 c. 165) inUpper Egypt, he was ageographerastronomer, andastrologer.[3]

As early as4000 BC, ancient Egyptians were playingharpsandflutes, as well as two indigenous instruments: theneyand theoud. However, there is a little notation of Egyptian music before the 7th century AD, when Egypt became part of theMuslim worldPercussionandvocalmusic became important at this time and has remained an important part of Egyptian music today.

Abdl-Hamid Youssef 2003, p.vii.

Egyptian cuisine consists of local culinary traditions such asFul medamesKushari, andMolokhia. It also shares similarities with food found throughout the eastern Mediterranean likekebabandfalafel.

Ahmed ZewailArabic:أحمد زويل‎) (born February 26, 1946) is an, and the winner of the 1999Nobel Prize in Chemistryfor his work onfemtochemistry. Born inDamanhur(60km south-east ofAlexandria) and raised inDisuq, he moved to theUnited Statesto complete his PhD at theUniversity of Pennsylvania. He was awarded a faculty appointment atCaltechin 1976, where he has remained since.

One of the reasons so little is known about the Library is that it was lost centuries after its creation. All that is left of many of the volumes are tantalizing titles that hint at all the history lost due to the buildings destruction. Few events in ancient history are as controversial as the destruction of the Library, as the historical record is both contradictory and incomplete. Its destruction has been attributed by some authors to, among others,Julius CaesarAugustus Caesar, and Catholic zealots during the purge of the Arian heresy, Not surprisingly, the Great Library became a symbol of knowledge itself, and its destruction was attributed to those who were portrayed as ignorantbarbarians, often for purely political reasons.

Tributes to Ptolemy include Ptolemaeus crater on the Moon and Ptolemaeus crater on Mars.

Film Festivals.Find out more about the Cairo International Film Festival.

The silk road led straight through ancient Alexandria. Also, theRoyal Library of Alexandriawas once the largest in the world. It is usually assumed to have been founded at the beginning of the 3rd century BC during the reign ofPtolemy II of Egyptafter his father had set up theTemple of the MusesorMuseum. The initial organization is attributed toDemetrius Phalereus. The Library is estimated to have stored at its peak 400,000 to 700,000scrolls.

Martin Bernal (1992). Animadversions on the Origins of Western Science,

In contemporary times, Egyptian novelists and poets were among the last to experiment with modern styles of Arabic-language literature, and the forms they developed have been widely imitated. The first modern Egyptian novelZaynabbyMuhammad Husayn Haykalwas published in 1913 in theEgyptian vernacular. Egyptian novelistNaguib Mahfouzwas the first Arabic-language writer to win theNobel Prize in Literature. Many Egyptian books and films are available throughout theMiddle East. Other prominent Egyptian writers includeNawal El Saadawi, well known for herfeministworks andactivism, andAlifa Rifaatwho also writes about women and tradition. Vernacular poetry is said to be the most popular literary genre amongstEgyptians, represented most significantly byBayram el-TunsiAhmed Fouad Negm(Fagumi),Salah JaheenandAbdel Rahman el-Abnudi.

About 75% of Egypts population isMuslim, with a Sunni majority. About 22% of the population isCoptic Christian; other religions and other forms ofChristianitycomprise the remaining three percent.

Since the 1970s and the rise of political Islam, belly dance and belly-dancers have acquired a bad reputation, but some famous Egyptian dancers stay in the memories as legends:Tahia CariocaSamia Gamalwho embodied Egypts golden age… Today the most famous ones are probablyFifi Abdoand Dina, but in a very more popular – some consider vulgar – way.

Egyptian Center for Culture and Art

Egypts cultural contributions have included great works ofscienceart, andmathematics, dating fromantiquityto modern times.

Ptolemy also wrote influential work Harmonics on music theory. After criticizing the approaches of his predecessors, Ptolemy argued for basing musical intervals on mathematical ratios (in contrast to the followers of Aristoxenus) backed up by empirical observation (in contrast to the over-theoretical approach of the Pythagoreans). He presented his own divisions of the tetrachord and the octave, which he derived with the help of a monochord. Ptolemys astronomical interests also appeared in a discussion of the music of the spheres.

See also:African art Egypt, andEgyptian influence in architecture and visual arts

TheMiddle Kingdomwas the golden age of Egyptian literature. Some notable texts include the Tale of Neferty, the Instructions ofAmenemhat I, theTale of Sinuhe, the Story of the Shipwrecked Sailor and the Story of the Eloquent Peasant.Instructionsbecame a popular literary genre of theNew Kingdom, taking the form of advice on proper behavior. TheStory of Wenamunand theInstruction of Anyare well-known examples from this period.

The Egyptian film industry is the largest within Arabic-speaking cinema.[6]

Al-AzharMosque founded in AD 970 by the Fatimids as the first Islamic University in Egypt.

. Brooklyn, NH: Brooklyn Museum. p.48.

Zewails key work has been as the pioneer offemtochemistry. He developed a method using a rapidlasertechnique (consisting ofultrashortlaser flashes), which allows the description of reactions at theatomiclevel. It can be viewed as a highly sophisticated form offlash photography.

This page was last edited on 21 May 2018, at 08:30.

Footballis the most popular sport in Egypt. Egyptian football clubs especiallyEl AhlyandEl Zamalekare known throughout the continent of Africa and enjoy the reputation of long-time champions of the sport regionally. They enjoy popularity even among non-Egyptians.

Dance is at the heart of Egyptian society, being used not only as a popular enjoyment (most recently, with the development of themahraganat- orelectro-chaabi- music scene), but also serving religious purposes (sufidance,zar, etc…). Most of the Egyptian movies use dance and music as a complete part of the narrative frame.

TheEgyptian national football teamwon theAfrican Cup of Nationsseven times setting a new record in Africa (years: 57, 59, 86, 98, 06, 08, 10). Egypt was the first African country to joinFIFA, but it has only made it to theFIFA World Cuptwice, in 1934 and 1990. In theWorld Military Cup, Egypt won the title 5 times and was the runner-up another 2 times.

TheEgyptian language, which formed a separate branch among the family ofAfro-Asiatic languages, was among the first written languages and is known from thehieroglyphicinscriptions preserved on monuments and sheets ofpapyrus. TheCoptic language, the most recent stage of Egyptian, is today theliturgical languageof theCoptic Orthodox Church.

Brief Guide to the Department of Egyptian and Classical Art

Painting achieved its greats height inDynasty XVIIduring the reigns of Tuthmose IV andAmenhotep III. The Fragmentary panel of the Lady Thepu, on the right, dates from the time of the latter king.[2]

In 1999, Zewail became the third Egyptian to receive theNobel Prize, followingAnwar Sadat(1978 in Peace) andNaguib Mahfouz(1988 in Literature). In 1999, he received Egypts highest state honor, theGrand Collar of the Nile.

Egyptian music is a rich mixture of indigenous Egyptian and Western influences.

Egypt 1952 Olympic Games; Tournament for Men. FIBA. 9 June 2012

From the 1970s onwards, Egyptianpop musichas become increasingly important in Egyptian culture, particularly among the large youth population of Egypt. Egyptianfolk musicis also popular, played during weddings and other festivities. In the last quarter of the 20th century, Egyptian music was a way to communicatesocialandclassissues. The most popular Egyptian pop singers areAmr DiabTamer HosnyMohamed MounirandAli El Haggar. One of the most respected earlyelectronic musiccomposers,Halim El-Dabh, is an Egyptian.

. Minneapolis, Minn.: American Univ in Cairo Press.ISBN88.

Antiquity and modernity stand side-by-side in Egypts chief Mediterranean seaport ofAlexandria.

Main articles:Art of ancient EgyptandAncient Egyptian architecture

Egypt also has an importantBallettradition, withCairo Opera Househosting a professional ballet company since the 1960s.Nelly Karim, one of the most famous Egyptian actresses, started her career as a ballerina.

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Local sports clubs receive financial support from the local governments, and many sporting clubs are financially and administratively supported by the government.

Early Egyptian artists did have a system for maintaining dimensions within artwork. They used a grid system that allowed them to create a smaller version of the artwork, and then scale up the design based upon proportional representation in a larger grid.

Center for Documentation of Cultural and Natural Heritage

Anew librarywas inaugurated in 2003 near the site of the old library.

ContemporaryEgyptian musictraces its beginnings to the creative work of luminaries such as Abdu-l Hamuli, Almaz, Sayed Mikkawi, and Mahmud Osman, who were all patronized byKhedive Ismailand who influenced the later work ofSayed DarwishUmm KulthumMohammed Abdel WahabAbdel Halim Hafezand other Egyptian music giants.

Also,roller hockey(quad) is available in Egypt, but the teams that are playing this game may not exceed 10 teams and the most famous club which plays roller hockey is Al-Zamalek sporting club, and also Nasr-City sporting club. The Egyptian national roller hockey team has taken part in many world competitions, but unlikely the team didnt win any tournament.

Egyptian dance tradition dates back to the Pharaonic period. Many paintings and sculptures show Ancient Egyptians dancing. Throughout the thousands of years of its history, Egypt has developed different types of dance: ancient Egyptian dance, (known in the West as belly dance), but also, since the beginning of the 21st century.

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