, 1987, Tåstrup: Teknologisk Instituts Forlag, 4 volumes:ISBN87-7511-711-8ISBN87-7511-712-6ISBN87-7511-713-4andISBN87-7511-714-2.
Preben Fabricius(19311984) andJørgen Kastholm(19382007), demonstrating originality with their Horseshoe Chair (1962)
Jeppe Villadsen, Hatched from The Egg,
, 6 February 2007. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
Wanscher, Ole (translated by David Hohnen):
, 20 September 2011. Retrieved 25 October 2011.
Danish Modern Furniture, Decorative Objects, and Art
Often credited with having introduced Danish Modern design to America, Risom was a graduate ofCopenhagen School of Industrial Arts and Design. He emigrated to the United States in 1939 to study American design, working first as a textile designer and later as a freelance furniture designer. In 1941 he joinedHans Knollat theHans Knoll Furniture Company, and together they toured the country promoting Risoms designs. A trueminimalist, Risom worked mainly in wood because it was cheap, and one of his most successful pieces, Knoll Chair 654 (which is still being manufactured)was made with a seat of nylon webbing that had been discarded by the army.
James Ruggia, Copenhagen Design Week Highlights History of Danish Design,
Rigmor Andersen(19031995), a versatile designer, maintaining the strict traditions of Klints furniture school.
The history of Mid Century Modern Design,
This page was last edited on 23 March 2018, at 20:23.
Danish Modern Furniture inside a 1940s Mid Century Modern Residence in Pasadena by architect James V. Coane & Associates
As a result of the furniture school he founded at the Royal Academy in 1924, Klint had a strong influence on Danish furniture, shaping designers such as Kjærholm and Mogensen. His carefully researched designs are based on functionality, proportions in line with the human body, craftsmanship and the use of high quality materials. Notable examples of his work include the Propeller Stool (1927), the Safari Chair and the Deck Chair (both 1933), and the Church Chair (1936).
1994 Reintroducing the 666 and 654 Chairs.
Poul Volther(19232001), remembered above all for his iconic Corona Chair.
The art of furniture: 5000 years of furniture and interiors
Articles with French-language external links
Helge Vestergaard Jensen (19171987), who produced the Daybed (1955)
Søren Sass, Rigmor Andersen (1903 – 1995),
David Colman, Obituary: Hans Wegner, groundbreaking designer of Danish Modern furniture,
Kunstindeks Danmark & Weilbachs kunstnerleksikon
A number of cabinetmakers also developed skills in design. They include:
, 2007, Copenhagen, Gyldendal, 329 p.ISBN87-02-06161-9
Bernt Petersen(born 1937), notable for his small, light stool (1959) with beautifully shaped legs and for his seating in theatres and concert halls.
Solaguren-Beascoa de Corral, Flix: Jacobsen. Objects and Furniture Design, 2010, Barcelona, Ed. Poligrafa, 127 pages.ISBN978-84-343-1183-1/ 978-84-343-11834-8
PH Lamp (1925) variation with frosted glass
After training as a cabinetmaker, she studied at theDanish Design Schoolin 1946, while receiving additional instruction fromKaare Klintat theRoyal Academys Furniture School. Inspired byAlvar Aaltos laminated bent-plywood furniture andCharles Eamesmoulded plywood designs, she began to develop her own boldly curved models in the 1950s. In 1963, she won aDaily Mirrorcompetition with her He Chair and She Chair. With the help of furniture manufacturer Poul Jeppesen, she went on to design simpler models with clear, comfortable lines, which became popular both in Denmark and the United States thanks to their competitive prices. Jalk also edited the Danish design magazineMobiliaand compiled an authoritative four-volume work on Danish furniture.
Morten Mandel Refskou, BogFeature: Da danske møbler blev moderne,
Danish furniture industry in short,
Employing some 15,000 people, each year Denmarks 400 furniture companies produce goods worth around DKK 13 billion (€1.75 billion). A highly productive sector, over 80% of the furniture produced is sold abroad making furniture Denmarks fifth most-important export industry. Most of the items produced are for the home, but many are designed for the workplace. In addition to its classic designs, Danish designer furniture benefits from a new generation of innovative players. As a result, Denmark has maintained its place as the worlds leading furniture producer in relation to the countrys population.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Nanna Ditzel(19232005), pioneering new materials and production techniques, also working with textiles and jewelry
Season 2, Episode 18 inOur Son, the Manthe family houses den is referred to as being Danish modern.
Wooden-legged Grand Prix Chair (1957)
Innovative design work is also encouraged by the Wilhelm Hansen Foundation with the annualFinn Juhl Prizewhich is awarded to designers, manufacturers or writers who have made a special contribution to the field of furniture design, especially chairs.
Several other individuals made important contributions:
Danish furniture design in the 20th century
In the postwar years, Danish designers and architects believed that design could be used to improve peoples lives. Particular attention was given to creating affordable furniture and household objects that were both functional and elegant. Fruitful cooperation ensued, combining Danish craftsmanship with innovative design. Initially, the furniture was handmade, but recognizing that their work would sell better if prices were reduced, the designers soon turned to factory production. Interest in Danish Modern in the United States began whenEdgar Kaufmann, Jr.from theMuseum of Modern Artpurchased some items for theFallingwaterhome designed byFrank Lloyd Wright.This ultimately led to mass-production in the United States, too.
Mid-century modern furniture of the 1950s
Commons category without a link on Wikidata
Season 3, Episode 6 inQue Sera SeraHouses interior design preferences (as well as his patient, Georges) are called Danish modern.
, 2006, Odense, Syddansk Universitetsforlag, 644 pp.ISBN87-11-23196-3.
Moderne dansk møbeldesign: tendenser, hammerslag og historie
Poul Henningsen, a self-taught inventor and true Functionalist, was an important participant in the Danish Modern school, not for furniture but for lighting design. His attempt to prevent the blinding glare from the electric lamp bulb succeeded in 1926 with a three-shade lamp, known as the PH lamp. The curvature of the shades allowed his hanging lamp to illuminate both the table and the rest of the room. He went on to design many similar lamps, some with frosted glass, including desk lamps, chandeliers and wall-mounted fixtures. Though he died in 1967, many of his designs have remained popular to this day.
Finn Juhls home inCharlottenlund, just north of Copenhagen, has been preserved as he left it with the furniture he designed. Other major contributors to Danish Modern includeMogens KochVerner PantonJørn UtzonHans J. WegnerandGrete Jalk. Examples of their work can be seen at Designmuseum Danmark in Copenhagen.Of particular note are Mogensens Sleigh Chair, JacobsensSwanand Juhls sculptural wood-frame seats. One of Wegners works was used byNixonandKennedyin a 1960 televised debate and is now known simply as The Chair.
After studying under Kaare Klint at the Copenhagen School of Arts and Crafts and at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Mogensen adopted Klints approach to simple, functional furniture design. Taking an almost scientific approach to an items functionality, most of his furniture is characterized by strong, simple lines and was designed for industrial production. Notable items include his oak-framed Hunting Chair (1950) with a strong leather back and seat, his light, open Spokeback Sofa (1945), and the low robust Spanish Chair (1959).
Hans Wegner chair,Centre Pompidou, Paris
Peter Hvidt(19161986) andOrla Mølgaard-Nielsen(19071993), remembered for the Ax Chair (1950) and the X Chair (1960)
The scarcity of materials after theSecond World Warencouraged the use of plywood. In the late 1940s, the development of new techniques led to the mass production of bent plywood designs byHans WegnerandBørge Mogensen, both of whom produced chairs with a teak plywood seat and back on a beech frame. In 1951,Arne Jacobsenwent even further with his sculpturalAnt Chairwith a one-piece plywood seat and back, bent in both directions. Collapsible chairs dating from the 1930s include Kaare Klints Safari Chair and propeller stools which were also developed byPoul KjærholmandJørgen Gammelgaard.
Sandy McLendon, The Modern Mama Had Scandinavian Modern,
Many other designers and cabinetmakers contributed to the Danish modern scene. Several worked in partnerships, including:
A number of Danish textile designers worked closely with furniture designers to help shape the look of Danish modernism, for example by creating textiles for cushions, sofas, and beds. These includeLis AhlmannandVibeke Klint, among others.
, 1984 (reprinted 2000), London: Thames & Hudson, 176 p.ISBN0-500-27859-8
Bodil Kjær(born 1932), architect and interior designer who created a successful series of office furniture in the 1960s.
Peder Moos(19061991), designed and built individual pieces on request, with his own special finish
Poet Sofa in room at CopenhagensBella Sky Hotel
Ejner Larsen(19171987) andAksel Bender Madsen(19162000) working mainly with teak and rosewood
From the beginning of the 1950s, American manufacturers obtained licenses for the mass production of Danish designs while maintaining high standards of craftsmanship. Later, the designs were altered to suit American tastes and American parts were introduced to reduce costs. WhenSearsandWoolworthsentered the market, the Danes countered by producing new designs based on new materials. Sales peaked around 1963, but when American manufacturers introduced moulded plastic and wood-grained Formica as cheaper substitutes, they started to decline in favour of Mediterranean designs which became popular in 1966.There has however been a resurgence of interest in recent years. While the mass-produced works of Wegner, Juhl and Jacobsen are still in demand, collectors are increasingly turning to limited production items from these and the other designers. In the United States, while prices have increased, they are still at reasonable levels compared to similar items of new furniture. Licensed manufacturers have started reissuing key designs, while others have used Danish Modern for inspiration.
Kjærholms chairs in theLouisiana Museum
Graduating from the Royal Academy in 1924, Jacobsen quickly demonstrated his mastery of both architecture and furniture design. With the completion of hisRoyal Hotel in Copenhagenand all its internal fittings and furniture in 1960, his talents became widely recognized, especially as a result of the chairs called theEggand the Swan, now international icons. His stackable, three-legged Ant Chair (1952) with a one-piece plywood seat and back and its four-legged counterpart, the7 Chair(1955), were particularly popular with worldwide sales in the millions.
Kat DeLong, Danish Modern Design For Todays Lifestyles,
Jacob Kjær(18961957), famous for his FN Chair, who also produced the furniture he designed
Arne Vodder(19262009), a close friend and partner of Finn Juhl, his furniture sold particularly well in the United States.
Ditte Hammerstrøm modtog Finn Juhl Arkitekturpris 2011,
Mogens Koch(18981992), remembered for his bookcases (1928) and folding chair (1932)
On graduating from the Royal Academy in 1951,Pantonworked briefly with Arne Jacobsen. During the 1960s, he designed furniture, lamps and textiles with an imaginative combination of innovative materials, playful shapes and bold colours. Among his earliest designs were the Bachelor Chair and Tivoli Chair (1955), both produced by Fritz Hansen, but he is remembered above all for hisPanton Chair(1960), the worlds first one-piece moulded plastic chair.Sometimes referred to as a pop artist, unlike the majority of his colleagues, he continued to be successful in the 1970s, not only with furniture but with interior designs including lighting.
The development of modern Danish furniture owes much to the collaboration between architects and cabinetmakers. CabinetmakerA. J. Iversen, who had successfully exhibited furniture from designs by architect Kay Gottlob at theParis World Exhibitionin 1925, was instrumental in fostering further partnerships. In 1927, with a view to encouraging innovation and stimulating public interest, the Danish Cabinetmakers Guild organized a furniture exhibition in Copenhagen which was to be held every year until 1967. It fostered collaboration between cabinetmakers and designers, creating a number of lasting partnerships including those between Rudolph Rasmussen and Kaare Klint, A. J. Iversen and Ole Wanscher, and Erhard Rasmussen and Børge Mogensen. From 1933, collaboration was reinforced as a result of the annual competition for new types of furniture, arranged each year prior to the exhibition.
In addition to an academic career at the School of Arts and Crafts and at the Institute of Design at the Royal Academy, Kjærholm always took full account of the importance of place a piece of furniture had in surrounding architectural space. Functionality took second place to his artistic approach which was centred on elegantly clean lines and attention to detail. Unlike many of his contemporaries, he worked essentially with steel, combining it with wood, leather, cane or marble. Kjærhom developed a close understanding with the cabinetmaker E. Kold Christensen who produced most of his designs. Today a wide selection of his furniture is produced byFritz Hansen. Kjærholms work can be seen in New YorksMuseum of Modern Artand theVictoria and Albert Museumin London.
Jørgen Gammelgaard(19381991), known for his Tip-Top lamp series.
is a style ofminimalistfurniture and housewares fromDenmarkassociated with theDanish designmovement. In the 1920s,Kaare Klintembraced the principles ofBauhausmodernism in furniture design, creating clean, pure lines based on an understanding of classical furniture craftsmanship coupled with careful research into materials, proportions and the requirements of the human body. With designers such asArne JacobsenandHans Wegnerand associated cabinetmakers, Danish furniture thrived from the 1940s through the 1960s. Adopting mass-production techniques and concentrating on form rather than just function,Finn Juhlcontributed to the styles success. Danish housewares adopting a similar minimalist design such as cutlery and trays of teak and stainless steel and dinnerware such as those produced in Denmark for Dansk in its early years, expanded the Danish modern aesthetic beyond furniture.
Though he studied architecture at the Royal Academy, Juhl was a self-taught designer as far as furniture was concerned. In the late 1930s, he created furniture for himself but from 1945 he became recognized for his expressively sculptural designs, placing emphasis on form rather than function, so breaking tradition with the Klint school. His successful interior design work at theUN Headquartersin New York spread the notion of Danish Modern far and wide, paving the way for the international participation of his Danish colleagues. Two key pieces of furniture, in which the seat and backrest are separated from the wooden frame, are his 45-Chair, with its elegant armrests, and his Chieftain Chair (1949).
, 1996, Århus: Systime, 157 p.ISBN87-616-1265-0
Hans Olsen(19191992), who experimented with materials and form, creating a number of items in his own distinctive style.
Frits Henningsen(c. 1900 c. 1970), who designed models produced at his own workshop in Copenhagen
PK0 chair, designed 1952 but first produced 1997
After graduating in architecture in 1938, he worked in Arne Jacobsen and Eric Møllers office before establishing his own office in 1943. Striving for functionality as well as beauty, he became the most prolific Danish designer, producing over 500 different chairs. His Round Chair (technically Model 500) in 1949 was called the worlds most beautiful chair before being labelled simply The Chair after Nixon and Kennedy used it in a 1960 televised debate. His Wishbone Chair, also 1949, with a Y-shaped back split and a curved back, was inspired by a Chinese childs chair he had seen. A work of simplicity and comfort, it is still made today by the Danish firm Carl Hansen & Son. Wegners designs can now be found in several of the worlds top design museums including New YorksMuseum of Modern Art.
Edith Rasmussen, Når fortiden banker på,
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Søren Sass, Grete Jalk (1920 – 2006),
, 2 June 2008. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
Inspired by Kaare Klint under whom he had studied, Wanscher later followed in his footsteps as professor of the Royal Academys furniture school. Particularly interested in 18th-century English furniture and in early Egyptian furniture, one of his most successful pieces was his delicately designed Egyptian Stool (1960) crafted from luxurious materials. Another successful item was his Colonial Chair in Brazilian rosewood.He was awarded the Grand Prix for furniture at Milans triennale in 1960.
Kurt Østervig(19121986), trained in Odense, designed furniture for ships and cinemas as well as for the home.
Between the two world wars,Kaare Klintexerted a strong influence on Danish furniture making. Appointed head of the Furniture Department at the Architecture School of theRoyal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, he encouraged his students to take an analytical approach, adapting design to modern-day needs. Adopting theFunctionalisttrend of abandoning ornamentation in favour of form, he nonetheless maintained the warmth and beauty inherent in traditional Danish cabinet making, as well as high-quality craftsmanship and materials.
, 2007, Copenhagen: Christian Ejlers, two volumes: 328 p. & 223 p.ISBN87-7241-677-7
Dansk møbelkunst gennem 40 år – 40 years of Danish furniture design
Tove and Edvard Kindt-Larsen(19011982), both students of Kaare Klint, working with contrasting materials
Da danske møbler blev moderne: historien om dansk møbeldesigns storhedstid
Table and chairs, Danish Design Museum
Bo Godt, Klassisk, dansk møbelarkitektur,
, 1968, London, Allen & Unwin, 419 p.
Articles with Danish-language external links
A number of firms continue to be active in producing both classic Danish Modern designs and in introducing variants designed by a new generation of artists. They includeRepublic of Fritz Hansen, Fredericia Furniture, Carl Hansen & Søn and Normann Copenhagen, all of whom exhibited at the 2011Salone Internazionale del Mobilein Milan.Other significant producers include PP Møbler, Kjærholm Production and One Collection, formerly known as Hansen & Sørensen.
Articles with unsourced statements from March 2016
Finn Juhl furniture at the Danish Design Museum
In addition to his architectural work,Lassenwas also a keen furniture designer. Influenced both byLe CorbusierandLudwig Mies van der Rohe, he developed a unique approach to Functionalism.As a result of his fine craftsmanship and his search for simplicity, his steel-based furniture from the 1930s added a new dimension to the modernist movement. His later designs in wood still form part of classical Danish Modern, especially his three-legged stooland folding Egyptian coffee table (1940) originally produced by A. J. Iversen.
, 2008, Salt Lake City: Gibbs Smith, 240 p.ISBN978-1-58685-811-7