Down A L History of Trinidads Oil (Address to the 22nd Annual Dinner Geological Society of Trinidad and Tobago 1960)
. Cambridge University Press. Archived fromthe originalon 2009-06-11.
May, Gary. Hard Oiler! The Story of Early Canadians Quest for Oil at Home and Abroad. Dundurn Press, 1998, p. 59
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Oil and world power, Encyclopedia of the New American Nation
A shared legacy: Islamic science East and West
The Energetic Issue as a Key Factor of the Fall of the Ottoman Empire
The oil wells of Alsace; a discovery made more than a century ago. What a Pennsylvania operator saw abroad–primitive methods of obtaining oil–the process similar to that used in coal miningNew York Times. 23 February 1880.
Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
A Heritage of Light: Lamps and Lighting in the Early Canadian Home
Archived copy. Archived fromthe originalon 2011-07-14
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Ulrich Vogel, Hans.The Great Well of China.
Akiner, Shirin; Aldis, Anne, eds. (2004).
Rapp, George (1985). Archaeomineralogy. Springer. p.237.
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Musum dhistoire naturelle, Geneva. accessed 2007-10-26
The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power
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Eirinis paper, entitled Dissertation sur la mine dasphalte contenant la manire dont se doivent rgler Messieurs les associs pour son exploitation, le profit du Roy, & celui de la Socit, & ce qui sera dû Mr dErinis qui elle apartient per Ligium feudum is held at the BPU Neuchâtel Fonds dtude [Ne V]2008-12-17 at theWayback Machine.
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Petroleum.
Four thousand years ago, according toHerodotusand confirmed byDiodorus Siculusasphaltwas used in the construction of the walls and towers ofBabylon; there were oil pits near Ardericca (near Babylon), and a pitch spring onZacynthusIonian islands, Greece).Great quantities of it were found on the banks of the riverIssus, one of the tributaries of theEuphrates. AncientPersiantablets indicate the medicinal and lighting uses of petroleum in the upper levels of their society.
. Baltimore,MD:Johns Hopkins University PressISBN978-0-801-82693-1.
Abraham Pineo Gesner, a Canadian geologist developed a process to refine a liquid fuel from coal, bitumen and oil shale. His new discovery, which he named kerosene, burned more cleanly and was less expensive than competing products, such as whale oil. In 1850, Gesner created the Kerosene Gaslight Company and began installing lighting in the streets in Halifax and other cities. By 1854, he had expanded to the United States where he created the North American Kerosene Gas Light Company at Long Island, New York. Demand grew to where his companys capacity to produce became a problem, but the discovery of petroleum, from which kerosene could be more easily produced, solved the supply problem.
Joseph P. Riva Jr.; Gordon I. Atwater.petroleum.
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Dalvi, Samir (November 3, 2015). Fundamentals of Oil & Gas Industry for Beginners:.ISBN99.
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Groundbreakers: the Story of Oilfield Technology and the People Who Made It Happen
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Oil sandswere mined from 1745 inMerkwiller-PechelbronnAlsaceunder the direction ofLouis Pierre Ancillon de la Sablonnire, by special appointment ofLouis XV.The Pechelbronn oil field was active until 1970, and was the birthplace of companies likeAntarandSchlumberger. The first modern refinery was built there in 1857.
Oil and the American Century: The Political Economy of US Foreign Oil Policy, 19411954
Today, about 90% of vehicular fuel needs are met by oil. Petroleum also makes up 40% of total energy consumption in the United States, but is responsible for only 2% of electricity generation. Petroleums worth as a portable, dense energy source powering the vast majority of vehicles and as the base of many industrial chemicals makes it one of the worlds most importantcommodities.
Reflection seismology(Seismic inversion)
Ignacy Łukasiewiczimproved Gesners method to develop a means of refining kerosene from the more readily available rock oil (petr-oleum)seeps, in 1852, and the first rock oil mine was built inBbrka, nearKrosnoincentral European GaliciaPoland) in 1854. These discoveries rapidly spread around the world, andMeerzoeffbuilt the first modern Russianrefineryin the mature oil fields atBakuin 1861. At that time Baku produced about 90% of the worlds oil.
International Association of Oil & Gas Producers
: 2007 Australian Broadcasting Corporation documentary [3 x 30 minutes] about the formation of oil, and humanitys use of it.
In 1848 the first modern oil well was drilled in Asia, on the Aspheron Peninsula north-east of Baku, by Russian engineer F.N. Semyenov.
Salim Al-Hassani(2008). 1000 Years of Missing Industrial History. In Emilia Calvo Labarta; Merc Comes Maymo; Roser Puig Aguilar; Mnica Rius Pinies.
The earliest mention of petroleum in the Americas occurs inSir Walter Raleighs account of thein 1595; while thirty-seven years later, the account of a visit of a Franciscan, Joseph de la Roche dAllion, to the oil springs of New York was published inGabriel SagardsHistoire du Canada. A Finnish born Swede, scientist and student ofCarl LinnaeusPeter Kalm, in his workTravels into North Americapublished first in 1753 showed on a map the oil springs of Pennsylvania.
In 1745 under the EmpressElizabeth of Russiathe first oil well and refinery were built inUkhtaby Fiodor Priadunov. Through the process of distillation of the rock oil (petroleum) he received a kerosene-like substance, which was used in oil lamps by Russian churches and monasteries (though households still relied on candles).
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Matveichuk, Alexander A. Intersection of Oil Parallels: Historical Essays. Moscow: Russian Oil and Gas Institute, 2004.
Themodern historyof petroleum began in the 19th century with the refining ofparaffinfrom crude oil. The Scottish chemistJames Youngin 1847 noticed a naturalpetroleumseepage in theatAlfretonDerbyshirefrom which he distilled a light thin oil suitable for use as lamp oil, at the same time obtaining a thicker oil suitable for lubricating machinery. In 1846, Baku (settlement Bibi-Heybat) the first ever well drilled with percussion tools to a depth of 21 meters for oil exploration. In 1848, Young set up a small business refining the crude oil. The new oils were successful, but the supply of oil from the coal mine soon began to fail (eventually being exhausted in 1851). Young, noticing that the oil was dripping from thesandstoneroof of the coal mine, theorized that it somehow originated from the action of heat on the coal seam and from this thought that it might be produced artificially.
Thepetroleum industryis not of recent origin, butpetroleums current status as the key component of politics, society, and technology has its roots in the early 20th century. The invention of theinternal combustion enginewas the major influence in the rise in the importance of petroleum.
Gao, Zhiguo. Environmental Regulation of Oil and Gas. Kluwer Law International. p.8.
Williamson, Harold F. and Arnold R. Daum. (1959)
American Petroleum Institute Quarterly Centennial Issue
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The Caspian: Politics, Energy and Security
The Age of Oil: The Mythology, History, and Future of the Worlds Most Controversial Resource
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The History of the British Petroleum Company, Volume 2: The Anglo-Iranian Years, 19281954
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Turnbull Elford, Jean. Canada Wests Last Frontier. Lambton County Historical Society, 1982, p 110
(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
In 1710 or 1711 (sources vary) the Russian-born Swiss physician and Greek teacherEirini dEyrinys(also spelled as Eirini dEirinis) discovered asphaltum atVal-de-Travers, (Neuchâtel). He established a bitumen minede la Prestathere in 1719 that operated until 1986.
Price(of gasoline and diesel)
The American petroleum industry: The age of illumination, 1859-1899
The first streets ofBaghdadwere paved withtar, derived from petroleum that became accessible from natural fields in the region. In the 9th century,oil fieldswere exploited in the area around modernBakuAzerbaijan. These fields were described by thein the 10th century, and byMarco Poloin the 13th century, who described the output of those wells as hundreds of shiploads.Distillationof Petroleum was described by thePersian alchemistMuhammad ibn Zakarya Rzi(Rhazes).[unreliable source]There was production of chemicals such askerosenein thealembic(al-ambiq),which was mainly used forkerosene lamps.Arab and Persian chemistsalso distilled crude oil in order to produceflammableproducts for military purposes. ThroughIslamic Spain, distillation became available inWestern Europeby the 12th century.It has also been present in Romania since the 13th century, being recorded as păcură.
The top three oil producing countries areSaudi Arabia, Russia, and the United States.About 80% of the worlds readily accessible reserves are located in the Middle East, with 62.5% coming from the Arab 5:Saudi Arabia(12.5%),UAEIraqQatarandKuwait. However, with high oil prices (above $100/barrel), Venezuela has larger reserves than Saudi Arabia due to its crude reserves derived frombitumen.
Mau, Mark; Edmundson, Henry (2015).
Until the mid-1950scoalwas still the worlds foremost fuel, but after this time oil quickly took over. Later, following the1973and1979energy crises, there was significantmediacoverage on the subject of oil supply levels. This brought to light the concern that oil is a limited resource that willeventually run out, at least as an economically viable energy source. Although at the time the most common and popular predictions were quite dire, a period of increased production and reduced demand in the following years caused anoil glut in the 1980s. This was not to last, however, and by the first decade of the 21st century discussions aboutpeak oilhad returned to the news.
Parts of this article (those related to Modern history) need to be
.Edicions Universitat Barcelona. pp.5782 .ISBN84-475-3285-2.
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Deng, Yinke (2011). Ancient Chinese Inventions. p.40.ISBN26.
2008-04-20 at theWayback Machine. 10 Moments That Made American Business,
The American Petroleum Industry the Age of Energy 1899-1959
Treatise on Petroleum and Its Treatment, along with Various Kinds of Tar and Gums
The earliest knownoil wellswere drilled in China in 347 AD or earlier. They had depths of up to about 800 feet (240m) and were drilled usingbitsattached tobamboopoles.[unreliable source?]The oil was burned to evaporatebrineand producesalt. By the 10th century, extensivebamboopipelines connected oil wells with salt springs. The ancient records of China and Japan are said to contain many allusions to the use of natural gas for lighting and heating. Petroleum was known asburning waterin Japan in the 7th century.In his bookDream Pool Essayswritten in 1088, the polymathic scientist and statesmanShen Kuoof theSong Dynastycoined the word (Shyu, literally rock oil) for petroleum, which remains the term used in contemporary Chinese and Japanese (Sekiy).
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The production of these oils and solidparaffin waxfrom coal formed the subject of his patent dated 17 October 1850. In 1850 Young & Meldrum and Edward William Binney entered into partnership under the title of E.W. Binney & Co. atBathgateinWest Lothianand E. Meldrum & Co. at Glasgow; their works at Bathgate were completed in 1851 and became the first truly commercial oil-works and oil refinery in the world, using oil extracted from locally minedtorbanite, shale, and bituminous coal to manufacturenaphthaand lubricating oils; paraffin for fuel use and solid paraffin were not sold till 1856.
This page was last edited on 25 April 2018, at 07:46.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
. Lanham MD: Rowman and Littlefield-Scarecrow Press. p.665.ISBN0-8108-5993-9.
The question of what constituted the first commercial oil well is a difficult one to answer.Edwin Drakes 1859 well nearTitusville, Pennsylvania, discussed more fully below, is popularly considered the first modern well.Drakes well is probably singled out because it was drilled, not dug; because it used a steam engine; because there was a company associated with it; and because it touched off a major boom. However, the first well ever drilled anywhere in the world, which produced oil, was drilled in 1857 to a depth of 280 feet by the American Merrimac Company in La Brea (Spanish for Pitch) in southeast Trinidad in the Caribbean.Additionally, there was considerable activity before Drake in various parts of the world in the mid-19th century. A group directed by Major Alexeyev of the Bakinskii Corps of Mining Engineers hand-drilled a well in the Baku region in 1848.There were engine-drilled wells in West Virginia in the same year as Drakes well.An early commercial well was hand dug inPolandin 1853, and another in nearbyRomaniain 1857. At around the same time the worlds first, but small, oil refineries were opened atJasło, in Poland, with a larger one being opened atPloiești, in Romania, shortly after. Romania is the first country in the world to have its crude oil output officially recorded in international statistics, namely 275 tonnes.In 1875, crude oil was discovered byDavid Beatyat his home inWarren, Pennsylvania. This led to the opening of the Bradford oil field, which, by the 1880s, produced 77 percent of the global oil supply. However, by the end of the 19th century, the Russian Empire, particularly theBranobelcompany inAzerbaijan, had taken the lead in production.
Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica without Wikisource reference
McKain, David L., and Bernard L. Allen. Where It All Began: The Story of the People and Places Where the Oil Industry BeganWest Virginia and South- eastern Ohio. Parkersburg, W.Va.: David L. McKain, 1994.
Following up this idea, he tried many experiments and eventually succeeded, by distillingcannel coalat a low heat, a fluid resemblingpetroleum, which when treated in the same way as the seep oil gave similar products. Young found that by slow distillation he could obtain a number of useful liquids from it, one of which he named paraffine oil because at low temperatures it congealed into a substance resembling paraffin wax.
Istoria Romaniei, Vol II, p. 300, 1960
Samuel Kierestablished Americas first oil refinery in Pittsburgh on Seventh avenue near Grant Street, in 1853. In addition to the activity in West Virginia and Pennsylvania, animportant early oil wellin North America was inOil Springs, Ontario, Canada in 1858, dug byJames Miller Williams.The discovery at Oil Springs touched off an oil boom which brought hundreds of speculators and workers to the area. New oil fields were discovered nearby throughout the late 19th century and the area developed into a large petrochemical refining centre and exchange.The modern US petroleumindustryis considered to have begun withEdwin Drakes drilling of a 69-foot (21m) oil well in 1859,onOil CreeknearTitusville, Pennsylvania, for the Seneca Oil Company (originally yielding 25 barrels per day (4.0m3/d), by the end of the year output was at the rate of 15 barrels per day (2.4m3/d)). The industry grew through the 1800s, driven by the demand forkeroseneandoil lamps. It became a majornationalconcern in the early part of the 20th century; the introduction of theinternal combustion engineprovided a demand that has largely sustained the industry to this day. Early local finds like those inPennsylvaniaandOntariowere quickly outpaced by demand, leading to oil booms inOhioTexasOklahoma, andCalifornia.
. New York: Routledge.ISBN978-0-7007-0501-6.
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, in The First World War: Analysis and Interpretation (edited by Biagini and Motta), Vol. 2., Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle, 2015, pp.453464.
Hanson Baldwin, 1959,2009-08-15 at theWayback Machine.,
Historical Dictionary of the Petroleum Industry
The use of petroleum dates back to ancient China more than 2000 years ago. InI Ching, one of the earliest Chinese writings cites the use of oil in its raw state without refining was first discovered, extracted, and used in China in the first century BCE. In addition, the Chinese were the first to use petroleum as fuel as the early as the fourth century BCE.
(2nd ed.). Knowledge House Publishers.ISBN0-911119-43-4OCLC26084778.
Zayn Bilkadi (University of California, Berkeley), The Oil Weapons,
Crude Reality: Petroleum in World History
. University of Toronto Press.ISBN0-8020-3765-8.
By 1910, significant oil fields had been discovered in theDutch East Indies(1885, inSumatra),Persia(1908, inMasjed Soleiman),Peru(1863, inZorritos District),Venezuela(1914, inMaracaibo Basin), and Mexico, and were being developed at an industrial level. Significant oil fields were exploited inAlberta(Canada) from 1947. First offshore oil drilling at Oil Rocks (Neft Dashlari) in the Caspian Sea off Azerbaijan eventually resulted in a city built on pylons in 1949. Availability of oil and access to it, became of cardinal importance in military power beforeand after World War I, particularly for navies as they changed from coal, but also with the introduction of motor transport, tanks and airplanes.Such thinking would continue in later conflicts of the twentieth century, including World War II, during which oil facilities were a major strategic asset and wereextensively bombed.In 1938, vast reserves of oil were discovered in theAl-Ahsaregion along the coast of the Persian Gulf.
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Oil was exploited in the Roman province ofDacia, now inRomania, where it was calledpicula.
, pages 1011. American Petroleum Institute.