line of the Roman empire

256: the Persians/Sassanids defeat the Romans and conquer Dura Europus in Mesopotamia

88 BC: Central and Southern Italians are granted full citizenship

621: the Visigoths reconquer all of Spain from the Roman empire

550 BC: Servius Tullius builds city walls

126 BC: A law forbids Italians to emigrate to Roma

341 BC: Rome conquers Campania from the Samnites with its capital of Capua

253: Both the emperor Gallus and his successor Aemilianus are killed by their soldiers and are succeeded by the old Valerian who appoints his son Gallienus as co-emperor in the west

378: The Visigoths defeat the Roman army at Hadrianopolis/Adrianople

395: Alaric unifies the Goths of the Balkans (Visigoths) and invades Greece

376: Valens allows Visigoths to settle within the empire

534: Justinians general Belisarius destroys the Arian kingdom of the Vandals and reconquers southern Spain and northern Africa

295 BC: Roma defeats the Gauls/Celts in northern Italy

60 BC: Crassus, Pompey and Caesar form a triumvirate

194: Rome annexes Palmyra to the province of Syria

392: Theodosius fights a civil war against Western usurper Eugenius

105 BC: the Teutones and the Cimbri defeat the Romans at Arausio/Orange

299: The Sassanids surrender to Roman emperor Galerius, who annexes Armenia, Georgia and Upper Mesopotamia

540: Justinians general Belisarius takes Ravenna from the last Ostrogothic resistance and thus reconquers Italy to the empire

306: Constantius dies and his son Flavius Valerius Constantinus (Constantine) is acclaimed by the troops as new vice-emperor of Galerius, while the Praetorian Guard appoints Maximians son Maxentius emperor instead of Galerius choice Severus

95 AD: Domitian exiles all philosophers from Rome tbr>

29 BC: Gaius Octavius (Octavian) returns to Roma

397: Stilicho attacks his old friend Alaric, but lets him repeatedly escape, so that the Eastern emperor signs a deal with the Goths

286: Diocletian appoints Maximian to rule the West, with capital in Milano

197: Septimius Severus wins the civil war at the Battle of Lugdunum and reforms the Praetorian Guard with non-Italians

70 BC: Crassus and Pompey are elected consuls

31 BC: Gaius Octavius, whose navy is led by Marcus Agrippa, defeats Marcus Antonius at the battle of Actium ending the civil wars

249: The emperor Philip the Arab is killed in battle by a rebel king, Decius

380: Theodosius I proclaims Christianity as the sole religion of the Roman Empire

443: the emperor grants Burgundi to settle in Savoy

532: Riots in Constantinople kill 30,000 people and almost dethrone Justinian

5 AD: Augustus general Tiberius submits the German tribes between the Rhine and the Elbe

203 BC: Roma organizes the northern colonies of Placentia and Cremona in the territory of the Gauls

103 BC: Athenion leads a slave revolt in Sicily

151 BC: Roman troops massacre Celts in Spain

167 BC: At the end of the Third Macedonian War the romans divide Macedonia into four republics

232 BC: Gaius Flaminius enacts an agrarian law ceding land of Northern Italy to poorer classes of citizens

71 BC: Crassus puts down Spartacus revolt and 6,000 slaves are crucified on the Via Appea

260: Valerian is captured by the Sassanid king Shapur I after the Battle of Edessa, the first Roman emperor to become a prisoner of war

272 BC: The Greek colony of Tarentum surrenders to Roma and soon all the remaining Greek colonies of southern Italy follow suit

536: the Ostrogoths surrender and Belisarius reconquers Rome (beginning of the Barbar wars in Italy)

42 BC: The religious cult of Julius Caesar is officially instituted by the Senate

230: The Sassanids invade Mesopotamia

568: Alboins Lombards invade northern Italy

33 BC: Marcus Agrippa is placed in charge of municipal works in Rome and proceeds to build hundreds of cisterns, fountains, and public baths

600 BC: Etruscans build the colossal tombs of Cerveteri

260 BC: the Roman senate authorizes the construction of a navy of triremes

53 BC: in the first war against Persia, Crassus is defeated and killed by the Parthians at Carrhae (Syria)

396 BC: Roma conquers the Etruscan city of Veii

63 BC: Cicero thwarts Catilinas attempted coup

132: Jews, led by Bar-Cochba, whom some identify as the Messiah, revolt against Roma

293: Diocletian institutes the tetrarchy under which each emperor choose his successor ahead of time, and Diocletian chooses Galerius while Maximian chooses Constantius Chlorus

554: the new king of the Visigoths, Athanagild, accepts the emperors sovereignity over Spain

264 BC: Roma and Carthage fight the first Punic war

435: The Roman Empire signs a second peace treaty with the Huns

96 AD: Domitian is assassinated and the senate replaces him with the old Nerva, thus terminating the principle of heredity (for a century)

303: the thermae of Diocletian are built

110: the Basilica of Trajano is completed

376 BC: Licinius and Sextius propose laws to appease the Plebeians but the Senate postpones them indefinitely

116: Trajan conquers Mesopotamia and the Parthian capital Ctesiphon

244: Shapur I becomes king of the Sassanids and attacks Roma , and Gordian is assassinated by his soldiers while fighting that war

97 AD: Chinese general Pan Chao sends an embassy to the Roman Empire

367 BC: Licinius laws are finally enacted

308: Galerius appoints another emperor, Licinius

198: Septimius Severus enters the Parthian capital Ctesiphon and annexes the northern half of Mesopotamia

337: Constantine dies, and his sons split the empire: Constantine II (Spain, Britain, Gaul), Constans I (Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedon, Achaea) and Constantius II (the East)

275: Aurelian is killed by his officers and is succeeded by the old Tacitus who dies within months

23 AD: Sejanus plots to murder Tiberius son and heir Drusus

185: The freed slave Cleander is the de facto ruler of Commodus empire

283 BC: Roma establishes Gallia Cisalpina (Cisalpine Gaul) in nothern Italy

107: The Roman Empire sends an embassy to India

203: Christians are massacred in Carthage

138: Hadrian is succeeded by Antoninus Pius, who repeals Hadrians anti-Jewish laws

90 BC: Central and Southern Italians start the social wars over the issue of citizenship

154 BC: The tribes of Lusitania rebel against Roma

313: Constantines ally Licinius defeats Maxentius ally Maximinus and becomes co-emperor in the East

366 BC: Lucius Sextius becomes the first plebeian consul

18 BC: Augustus enacts the Julian law of chastity and repressing adultery (Lex Iulia)

181 BC: the Gauls of northern Italy are definitely subjugated

500: Romas population has declined to less than 100,000 people

57 BC: Caesar conquers all of Gaul killing tens of thousands of people

: Tarquinius I becomes an Etruscan king of Roma

84 AD: British rebels are defeated by the Romans at the battle of Mons Graupius

554: the empire reorganizes Italy as an imperial province (end of the Barbar wars)

59 AD: Nero orders the assassination of his mother Agrippina

222 BC: the invading Gauls are defeated

5 AD: Roma acknowledges Cymbeline, King of the Catuvellauni, as king of Britain

276: Probus restores peace by repelling the last barbarians on Roman soil

63 BC: Pompeus captures Jerusalem and annexes Palestine to Roma

202: Septimius Severus expands the southern frontier of African Roma

68 AD: Gaul and Spain rebel against Nero and Nero commits suicide rather than falling into their hands, while Spanish governor Galba is pronounced the new emperor

49 AD: Agrippina and Pallas establish a reign of terror behind the back of the nominal emperor, Claudius

206 BC: Scipio defeats Carthage at Illipa

303: Diocletian and Maximian order a general persecution of the Christians, including the destruction of all churches (1,500 Christians will be killed in eight years) and burning of all Christian books

13 BC: Augustus expands the borders to the region of the Danube

169: the Roman empire is invaded by northern Germans

80 BC: Sulla retires to private life

509 BC: the last king (Tarquinius Superbus) is expelled and Roma becomes a republic

330: Constantine I moves the capital of the Roman empire to Constantinople (Byzantium)

12 AD: The last Etruscan inscription is carved

298 BC: Roma goes to war against the Samnites again

626: the Sassanids besiege Constantinople

274: The emperor Aurelian defeats the rebellious Gauls

395: Theodosius dies and the empire divides in a Western and Eastern Empires, with Milano and Constantinople as their capitals, granted to his minor sons Arcadius and Honorius but ruled by their advisors, Rufinus and general Flavius Stilicho

166: Lucius defeats the Parthians and destroys its capital Ctesiphon

600: Constantinople has 500,000 inhabitants

300: the population of the Roman Empire is 60 million (about 15 million Christians)

273: The emperor Aurelian destroys the rebellious city of Palmyra in Zenobias kingdom

217: Caracalla, accompanied by his mother Julia, begins a campaign against the Parthians but is murdered in Edessa by his soldiers, while the head of the Praetorian Guard appoints himself emperor

326 BC: A new war begins against the Samnites

101 BC: consul Gaius Marius defeats the Cimbri at Vercelli, killing almost all of them

39 AD: Caligulas sisters Agrippina and Livilla plot to murder him but fail and are exiled

469: Attilas son Dengizich is captured and executed

19 AD: Tiberius adopted son Germanicus dies and his wife Agrippina moves to Roma with her children, including Caligula

258: Valerian persecutes Christians and even the pope, Sixtus II, is executed

255: The Goths invade Macedonia, Dalmatia and Asia Minor

54 AD: Claudius is assassinated by Agrippina and is succeeded by Agrippinas son Nero

261: The king of Palmyra, Odenathus, defeats the Sassanids on behalf of Roma, annexing Arabia, Anatolia and Armenia

213: Caracalla a campaign against the Alamanni

51 BC: The 18-year old Cleopatra is made co-ruler of Egypt with her ten-year old brother who also becomes her husband

202 BC: Scipio defeats Hannibal at Zama and Roma annexes Spain

62 AD: The childless Nero divorces his loyal wife Octavia, who is beheaded, and marries the pregnant Poppaea while establishing a reign of terror

69 BC: Rome invades Tigranes Armenian kingdom and edstroys its capital, Tigranocerta

100: the city of Roma has one million inhabitants

308 BC: Roma conquers the Etruscan city of Tarquinia

271: The emperor Aurelian defeats the invading Germans

326: Constantine has his son Crispus and his wife Fausta Flavia Maxima executed

1 AD: Roma has about one million people

364: Valentinian delegates Valens as emperor of the East

101 BC: Roman troops massacre Athenions rebels

218 BC: Hannibal invades Italy and the Gauls of northern Italy ally with him

193: Septimius Severus seizes power, executes scores of senators, confiscates huge lands from the Italian aristocracy, and turns Roma into a military dictatorship

235: Alexander is assassinated by soldiers loyal to Julius Maximinus, general of the Pannonian legions, the beginning of a 50-year civil war

269: The Goths raid the Greek cities for a second time but are defeated by Roman emperor Claudius II

264 BC: the Romans destroy the last vestiges of the Etruscan civilization (Volsinies)

80 AD: the Romans invade Caledonia (Scotland)

488: emperor Zeno sends Theodorics Ostrogoths (still settled in Pannonia) to conquer Italy

209 BC: Scipio conquers Nova Carthago

438: An imperial decree sanctions the death penalty for homosexuals

269: Zenobia conquers Egypt expelling the Roman goernor

146 BC: Macedonia becomes a province of Roma

144 BC: The first high-level aqueduct is built

139 BC: Slave revolt in Sicily with the crucifixion of 4,500 slaves (First Servile War))

214 BC: War machines designed by Greek mathematician Archimedes save the city of Syracuse, an ally of Carthage, from a Roman naval attack

312: Constantine defeats Maxentius, becomes emperor of the West and disbands the Praetorian Guard

393: Theodosius forbids the Olympic Games because pagans and shuts down the temple of Zeus at Olympia

311: Galerius relaxes the ban on Christianity

387: Theodosius defeats Magnus Maximus

43 BC: A triumvirate is appointed with Marcus Antonius, the partner in Caesars fifth consulship, and Gaius Octavius, Caesars adopted son

450 BC: The Twelve Tables of the Roman law re enacted

207 BC: Rome defeats Carthages Hannibal at the Metaurus river

474 BC: the Greeks defeat the Etruscans at Cuma

49 BC: When the senate asks for his resignations, Ceasar crosses the Rubicon and invades Roma

164: The plague spreads throughout the Roman empire (Antonine plague)

32 BC: Marcus Antonius divorces his wife Octavia and marries Cleopatra

476: Odoacer, a mercenary in the service of Roma, leader of the Germanic soldiers in the Roman army, deposes the western Roman emperor and thereby terminates the western Roman empire

9 AD: Augustus general Tiberius defeats the Pannonians and Dalmatians

123 BC: Tiberiuss brother Gaius Gracchus enacts populist laws

215: Caracalla massacres the inhabitants of Alexandria

175 BC: the Celts of Spain are subjugated

212: Caracalla murders his brother Geta and sentences to death 20,000 of Getas followers

189 BC: Antiochus III, king of the Seleucids, is defeated at the battle of Magnesia and surrenders his possessions in Europe and Asia Minor

175: Aurelius defeats the German barbarians

401: Alaric invades Italy but is defeated by Stilicho (who lets him escape again)

261: Gallienus forbids aristocrats from serving in the army and relaxes the laws against Christianity

104 BC: Slave revolt in Sicily (second servile war)

106 BC: the Romans led by newly elected consul Marius defeat Jugurtha, king of Numidia

418: the emperor grants Wallias Visigoths the right to settle in Aquitaine (Atlantic coast of France) in return for help against Vandals and Alans

359: Constantinople becomes the capital of the Roman empire

128 BC: Southern France (Aquitania) becomes a provinces of Rome

314: Constantine defeats Licinius and obtains all Roman Europe except Thracia, while Licinius keeps Africa and Asia

257: Valerian reconquers Syria from the Sassanids

284: Diocletian, the son of a Dalmatian slave, becomes emperor but rules from Nicomedia in the East

627: the Sassanid king Khusrau II is defeated by Roman emperor Heraclius at Niniveh

313: Constantine ends the persecution of the Christians (edict of Milano)

233: Alexander defeats the Sassanids

270: Claudius II dies of the plague and the army chooses Aurelian as the new emperor

217: The Baths of Caracalla are inaugurated

323: Constantine defeats Licinius again and becomes the sole emperor

312 BC: the first aqueduct, the Aqua Appia, is built

37 BC: Rome appoints Herod as king of Judea, who moves his capital to Caesarea, a pagan city under the protection of the goddess Tyche/Fortuna

253: Gallienus becomes emperor but 30 tyrants carved out their own kingdoms around the empire

266: Odenathus is assassinated and his wife Zenobia becomes the new ruler of Syria

260: Gallienus becomes the sole emperor

305: Diocletian and Maximian abdicate in favor of Galerius and Constantius, but civil war erupts again

67 BC: Pompey launches a campaign against pirates of Cilicia and is given dictatorial powers by the Senate

64 BC: Syria becomes a Roman province under general Pompey (Gnaeus Pompeius)

161: Antoninus dies and his heir designate Marcus Aurelius, a philosopher, becomes Roman emperor with Lucius Verus as co-emperor, the first time that Roma is ruled by two emperors

187: The Libyan-born the general of the Pannonian legions, Septimius Severus, who was raised in a Phoenician family and studied philosophy in Athens, marries Julia Domna, a descendant of the high kings of the temple of Baal in Syria

220 BC: A law forbids senators from entering into business

208: Septimius Severus begins a campaign in Britain

578 BC: Tarquinius Priscus builds the Cloaca Maxima, the first sewer

526: Antioch in Syria is destroyed by an earthquake

537: Justinian builds the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople

113 BC: Germanic tribes Cimbri and Teutones defeat the Romans and invade Gaul and Spain

529: Roman emperor Justinian shuts down the Academia of Plato

321 BC: At the Battle of Caudine Forks Rome is defeated by the Samnites

311: Galerius dies leaving Maxentius and Constantine to fight for the throne of the West

602: the Persians (Sassanids) attack the eastern Roman empire in Asia Minor

295: The Sassanids invade the Eastern empire again

50 AD: the Romans found Londinium in Britain

136: Hadrian definitely crushes the Jewish resistance, forbids Jews from ever entering Jerusalem, and changes the name of the city to Aelia Capitolina

2 AD: Augustus, whose sons have died, chooses Tiberius as his adopted son

98 BC: Roman troops massacre Spaniards

171 BC: The Third Macedonian War begins when Perseus attacks Roma

31 AD: Tiberius survives a plot by Sejanus who is killed

192: the Praetorian Guard kills emperor Commodus

211: Septimius Severus is the last emperor to die of natural causes until 284, most of the others being murdered by the Praetorian Guard or the soldiers and all of them reigning an average of three years

182: Upon discovering a conspiracy against him, Commodus establishes a new reign of terror

73 BC: Spartacus leads the revolt of the gladiators (third servile war)

251: Decius is killed in battle by the Goths

88 BC: Sulla marches on Roma to seize power from Marius, the first time that a Roman army invades Roma

427: Gensenrics Vandals crosses the strait of Gibraltar and lands in Africa

219: Julia Maesa, Julia Domnas sister, leads a Syrian army that defeats the imperial army and installs her teenager grandson Varius Avitus (Elagabalus), a Syrian priest of Baal, as emperor, but Maesa is the de facto ruler while Elagabalus worships a conical black stone representing Baal as the supreme god

70 AD: Vitellius and his followers are defeated by Vespasian, the general of the Egyptian legions, who becomes the new emperor

356: Roma has 28 libraries, 10 basilicas, 11 public baths, two amphitheaters, three theaters, two circuses, 19 aqueducts, 11 squares, 1,352 fountains, 46,602 insulae (city blocks)

133 BC: Tiberius Gracchus enacts a law to redistribute land to the poor farmers but is assassinated with 300 of his supporters

542: the plague decimates the Empire

102 BC: consul Gaius Marius defeats the Teutonic army at Aquae Sextiae/ Aix-en-Provence, killing about 100,000 of them

211: Septimius Severus dies in Britain and is succeeded by his sons Lucius Septimius Bassianus (Caracalla) and Geta

285: Diocletian, proclaiming himself the human manifestation of Jupiter, reunites the empire and ends the 50-year civil war

486 BC: The consul Spurius Cassius proposes land redistribution to the poor but the patricians murder him

238: Maximinus is assassinated by his own soldiers and dies without ever having visited Roma, while the senate declares Maximus the new emperor, but he is in turn promptly assassinated by the Praetorian Guard that appoints the ten-year old Gordian III

402: the western Roman empire moves the capital from Milano to Ravenna

272 BC: a second aqueduct, the Anio Vetus, is built

37 AD: Tiberius is murdered and the mad Caligula succeeds him, the only surviving son of Agrippina

407: Roman general Stilicho (of Vandal descent) stops the Vandals on their way to Italy

95 BC: The city of Roma expels all non-Roman citizens (except slaves)

81 AD: Titus dies and is succeeded by his brother Domitian

197 BC: Philip V of Greece is defeated by the Romans at Kynoskephalai/ Cynoscephalae

324: Constantine I founds a new city, Constantinople (Byzantium)

222: The Praetorian Guard murders Elagabalus and installs as emperor Elagabalus cousin Alexianus (Alexander Severus), also a grandson of Maesas, and another teenager, with real power in the hands of his mother Julia Mamaea, who restores Jupiter as supreme Roman god, restores the power of the senate, and restores morality by banning homosexuals and prostitutes

494 BC: Plebeians rebel against the patricians, the beginning of the class wars

14 AD: Augustus dies and Tiberius becomes emperor, appointing Sejanus chief of the Praetorian Guard

46 BC: Ceasar defeats an army of Pompeians and Numidians at the battle of Thapsus

135 BC: Second slave revolt in Sicily (first servile war)

280 BC: Roma is defeated by Pyrrhus of Epirus at Heraclea

65 AD: Nero forces Seneca to commit suicide

139: Hadrians mausoleum (Castel SantAngelo) is built

133 BC: Attalus III of Pergamum wills his kingdom to Roma and the whole Mediterranean Sea is under Roman control (mare nostrum)

162: The British Celts revolt, and Parthia declares war on Roma

287 BC: The Lex Hortensia makes plebiscites (laws passed by the Assembly in which plebeians outnumber patricians) binding for the Senate of the patricians

360: pagan (Mithraist) general Julian (the apostate) defeats an invasion of Barbarians and is declared emperor by his German troops

610: Heraclius I (son of the Orthodox bishop of Africa) overthrows the tyrant Phocas, becomes emperor and establishes Greek as the official language

181 BC: Aquileia is founded on the head of the Adriatic

275 BC: Roma defeats Pyrrhus and conquers most of southern Italy

20 BC: a treaty between Roma and Persia (Parthians) fixes the boundary between the two empires along the Euphrates river (Iraq)

383: Theodosius splits the empire in a Western and Eastern regions, granted to his infant sons Arcadius and Honorius , while civil war erupts against the Western usurper Magnus Maximus

55 BC: Caesar fights German tribes and crosses the Rhine

260: The plague spreads thoughout the Roman empire, decimating its population

87 BC: Octavius and Cinna are elected consuls, but Octavius, defender of the optimates and ally of Sulla, is killed by Marius when he opposes Cinna, defender of the populares, along with many Sulla supporters

554: Rome is reduced to a camp of about 30,000 people, while Constantinople has about one million people

274: The emperor Aurelian defeats Zenobia and brings her as a hostage to Roma, reuniting the eastern empire

537: Justinians general Belisarius deposes pope Silverius and replaces him with pope Vigilius

313: the Basilica of Maxentius is completed

100 BC: Lucius Saturninuns proposes Gracchian reforms but is killed by Marius troops

552: End of Ostrogothic resistance in Italy

117: Trajan dies on his way to the Persian Gulf and Hadrian, his wifes lover, becomes emperor

12 BC: Augustus becomes pontifex maximus

250: The emperor Decius orders the first empire-wide persecution of Christians that also kills the bishop of Roma

380: The Visigoths defeat the Roman army in Macedonia

106: Trajan captures the Nabataean capital Petra (Jordan) and turns Nabataea into the province of Arabia

122: Hadrians Wall is built along the northern frontier to protect from the Barbarians

121 BC: Gaius Gracchus, cornered, commits suicide and thousands of his followers are killed by the Senate

212: Caracalla grants Roman citizenship on all free people who live in the Roman Empire, but only to subject them to the same taxes

71 BC: Mithridates VI of Pontus is conquered by Roman general Lucius Lucullus

26 AD: Tiberius leaves Roma, leaving Sejanus de facto running the empire

533: Justinians code of law (Corpus Juri Civilis) is published

295 BC: Roma defeats the Samnites at Sentinum

180: Aurelius dies and his teenager son Commodus succeeds him, thus restoring the heredity rule

406: Radagaisus is captured and executed

48 AD: Claudius wife Messalina is executed for conspiring to overthrow her husband and Claudius marries his niece Agrippina the Younger, daughter of Agrippina, who is actually the lover of his advisor Pallas

48 BC: Ceasar defeats Pompey at Pharsalus and becomes sole dictator of Rome, calling himself imperator

52 BC: Clodius, the main defender of the plebeians/the Pompeian party, is assassinated by his rival Milo

167: the Roman empire is attacked for the first time by barbarians (the German Quadi and Marcomanni)

527: Byzantium enforces anti-Jewish laws and the Jews all but disappear from the eastern Roman Empire

111 BC: Roma declares war on Numidia

46 AD: Thracia becomes a Roman province

70 AD: Titus destroys Jerusalem and Jews spread in Armenia, Iraq, Iran, Arabia, Egypt, Italy, Spain and Greece

2 AD: The Forum of Augustus is inaugurated

69 AD: Galba is murdered by the Praetorian Guard that has been bribed by Otho but the general of the German legions, Vitellius, invades Italy and claims the empire

338 BC: Rome dissolves and annexes the Latin League

546: Visigothic rebels led by Totila sack Roma

178: Aurelius and his son Commodus fight the Third Marcomannic War against the German barbarians

340 BC: Rome fights the Latin League, including the Samnites

390: An imperial decree sanctions the death penalty for male prostitutes (to be burned alive)

98 AD: Nerva dies and his designated heir Trajan becomes emperor

406: Vandals and Alans invade France from the north

64 AD: Nero sets fire to Roma and blames the Christians for it

405: Radagaisus leads a Gothic raid into Italy

263: The Goths raid Ephesus and destroy the Temple of Arthemis, one of the seven wonders

149 BC: Roma conquers Greece after winning the battle of Corinth (and destroying Corinth)

106: Trajan defeats Dacia that becomes a Roman province

258: Postumus declares the independence of Gaul

614: the Persians (Sassanids) raid Jerusalem and destroy its churches

268: Gallienus is assassinated by his own officers

190: In another round of executions Commodus has Cleander himself killed

51 BC: Caesar crushes revolt of Vercingetorix in Gaul

41 AD: Caligula is assassinated and the Praetorian Guard appoints Claudius as emperor, Germanicus brother and Agrippinas brother-in-law, so Agrippina can return to Roma

430: The Roman Empire signs a first peace treaty with the Huns

425: the eastern emperor Theodosius II installs Valentinian III as emperor of the west

9 AD: Gothic warlord Arminius destroys the Roman army at the Teutoburg Forest and Roma withdraws the border to the Rhine

82 BC: By winning the battle at Porta Collina, Sulla reconquers Roma, executes thousands of political enemies including 40 senators and becomes dictator establishing a reign of terror and enacting aristocratic laws

214: Caracalla murders King Abgar IX of Edessa and declares Edessa a Roman colony

527: Justinian becomes eastern Roman emperor and decides to reconquer Italy

79 AD: Vespasianus dies and is succeeded by his son Titus Flavius Vespasianus

216 BC: Hannibal defeats Rome at Cannae

68 BC: Julius Caesar is appointed to Spain

552: Nestorian monks smuggle silkworm eggs from China to Byzanthium

177: Aurelius orders the persecution of sects like the Christians and the slave girl Blandina is tortured to death

282: Probus is assassinated by his soldiers

79 AD: the Vesuvius erupts and Pompeii is buried under ash

47 BC: Ceasar invades Egypt and proclaims Cleopatra queen (ethnically a Macedonian Greek)

363: Julian dies attempting to invade the Sassanid kingdom of Persia, which recaptures Nisibis and Armenia, and general Valentinian becomes emperor

45 BC: Julius Caesar employs the Egyptian astronomer Sosigenes to work out a new 12-month calendar (Julian calendar)

493: the Ostrogoths led by Theodoric conquer Italy

97 AD: Rome forbids human sacrifice throughout the Roman empire

168 BC: The Romans defeat Philip Vs son Perseus at Pydna and end the Antigonid dynasty

30 BC: Both Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra commit suicide and Egypt is annexed to Roma

50 BC: Roma introduces the gold coin aureus

27 BC: Gaius Octavius appoints himself augustus (the first emperor) and founds the Praetorian Guard

36 BC: Gaius Octavius defeats Sextus Pompey and the senate appoints him tribune for life

450: Theodosius II dies and Marcian succeeds him, the first Roman emperor to be crowned by a religious leader (the patriarch of Constantinople)

14 AD: five million people live in the Roman empire

382: Theodosius I signs a peace treaty with Tervingi (later Visigoths) and Greuthungi (later Ostrogoths)

7 AD: Augustus expands the borders to the Balkans

300 BC: A plebeian rises to priesthood for the first time

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