Roman Empire

Pertinax governed for only three months before he was assassinated. He was followed, in rapid succession, by four others in the period known as The Year of the Five Emperors, which culminated in the rise of Septimus Severus to power. Severus ruled Rome from 193-211 CE, founded the Severan Dynasty, defeated the Parthians, and expanded the empire. His campaigns in Africa and Britain were extensive and costly and would contribute to Romes later financial difficulties. He was succeeded by his sonsCaracallaand Geta, until Caracalla had his brother murdered.

Publius Quinctilius Varusis made governor of Germania.

SouthBritainand claim the territory as part of RomanEmpire.

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It was during this time thatPlatos famous Academy was closed by Theodosius decree. Many of his reforms were unpopular with both the Roman aristocracy and the common people who held to the traditional values of pagan practice. The unity of social duties and religious belief which paganism provided was severed by the institution of a religion which removed the gods from the earth and human society and proclaimed only one God who ruled from the heavens. Theodosius I devoted so much effort to promoting Christianity that he seems to have neglected other duties as emperor and would be the last to rule both Eastern and Western Empires.

(Cambridge University Press, 2001).

Hadrianswallis built in northern England.

Thessalonica is made the captial of theRomanprovince ofMacedon.

CantabrianWarsof the Iberian Penninsula.

OctavianusesCorcyraas aRomannaval base.

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RomanEmperor Theodosius II orders closure ofEpidaurussanctuary.

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Byblosconquered by theRomangeneralPompeythe Great.

In the same way that earlier Roman emperors had claimed a special relationship with a deity to augment their authority and standing (Caracalla with Serapis, for example, or Diocletian withJupiter), Constantine chose the figure ofJesusChrist. At the First Council of Nicea (325 CE), he presided over the gathering to codify the faith and decide on important issues such as the divinity of Jesus and which manuscripts would be collected to form the book known today as TheBible. He stabilized the empire, revalued the currency, and reformed the military, as well as founding the city he called New Rome on the site of the former city ofByzantium(modern-day Istanbul) which came to be known as Constantinople.

Samos becomes part of theRomanprovince of Asia.

These four rulers wereGalbaOthoVitellius, andVespasian. Following Neros suicide in 68 CE, Galba assumed rule (69 CE) and almost instantly proved unfit for the responsibility. He was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard. Otho succeeded him swiftly on the very day of his death, and ancient records indicate he was expected to make a good emperor. General Vitellius, however, sought power for himself and so initiated the brief civilwarwhich ended in Othos suicide and Vitellius ascent to the throne.

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TheRomangeneral Cornelius Fuscus invadesDacia. He is ambushed and his army is annihilated.

The theory that Christianity was a root cause in the empires fall was debated long before Gibbon, however, asOrosiusargued Christianitys innocence in Romes decline as early as 418 CE. Orosius claimed it was primarily paganism itself and pagan practices which brought about the fall of Rome. Other influences which have been noted range from the corruption of the governing elite to the ungovernable vastness of the empire to the growing strength of the Germanic tribes and their constant incursions into Rome. TheRoman militarycould no longer safeguard the borders as efficiently as they once had nor could the government as easily collect taxes in the provinces. The arrival of the Visigoths in the empire in the third century CE and their subsequent rebellions has also been cited a contributing factor in the decline.

TheAchaean Leaguesigns a treaty of alliance withRome.

Lydiaand its captialSardiscomes underRomanrule.

RomanemperorConstantine ItoleratesChristianity.

(University of California Press, 1988).

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Caracallasedict grantsRomancitizenship to all free inhabitants of the RomanEmpire.

Romans defeat the last of the Northern tribes;ofBritaincomplete.

Vespasian founded the Flavian Dynasty which was characterized by massive building projects, economic prosperity, and expansion of the empire. Vespasian ruled from 69-79 CE, and in that time, initiated the building of the FlavianAmphitheatre(the famous Coliseum of Rome) which his sonTitus(ruled 79-81 CE) would complete. Titus early reign saw the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 CE which buried thecitiesofPompeiiand Herculaneum.

Resolved to avenge Fuscus defeat,Domitiansends another army toDaciaunder Tettius Iulianus. This general is victorious on the mountainous pass of Tapae, in the south-west of modernRomania.

TheRoman empireis split into the Western and EasternRomanempires.

TheAntonine Wallbuilt underAntoninus Pius, north ofHadrianWall.

Londinium (London) founded, roads constructed.

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This period, also known as The Imperial Crisis, was characterized by constant civil war, as various military leaders fought for control of the empire. The crisis has been further noted by historians for widespread social unrest, economic instability (fostered, in part, by the devaluation of Roman currency by the Severans), and, finally, the dissolution of the empire which broke into three separate regions. The empire was reunited byAurelian(270-275 CE) whose policies were further developed and improved upon by Diocletian who established the Tetrarchy (the rule of four) to maintain order throughout the empire.

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Butrintformally becomes aRomancolony.

Romewithdraws from region ofScotland.

From 376-382 CE, Rome fought a series of battles against invadingGothsknown today as the Gothic Wars. At the Battle of Adrianople, 9 August 378 CE, the Roman Emperor Valens was defeated, and historians mark this event as pivotal in the decline of the Western Roman Empire. Various theories have been suggested as to the cause of the empires fall but, even today, there is no universal agreement on what those specific factors were. Edward Gibbon has famously argued in hisThe History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empirethat Christianity played a pivotal role, in that the new religion undermined the social mores of the empire which paganism provided.

First trip ofHadrianaround theEmpireGaul, Germany, Noricum,Britain, Tarraconis, Cappadocia, Gallatia, Bythinia, Asia,Greece, Mesia,Daciaand Pannonia.

Following Augustus death, power passed to his heir,Tiberius, who continued many of the emperors policies but lacked the strength of character and vision which so defined Augustus. This trend would continue, more or less steadily, with the emperors who followed:CaligulaClaudius, andNero. These first five rulers of the empire are referred to as the Julio-Claudian Dynasty for the two family names they descended from (either by birth or through adoption), Julius and Claudius. Although Caligula has become notorious for his depravity and apparent insanity, his early rule was commendable as was that of his successor, Claudius, who expanded Romes power and territory inBritain; less so was that of Nero. Caligula and Claudius were both assassinated in office (Caligula by hisPraetorian Guardand Claudius, apparently, by his wife). Neros suicide ended the Julio-Claudian Dynasty and initiated the period of social unrest known as The Year of the Four Emperors.

Rometakes control overNaxosin theCyclades.

Reign of Herod the Great over Judea.

Caesarea made capital of imperial province.

Romegives dominion over theCycladestoAthens.

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Philippi gains the honorary title of Colonia Iulia Augusta Philippensis.

Smith College Museum of Ancient Inventions: Sarculum

End of theThird Punic WarCarthageis destroyed and its lands become theRomanprovinceAfrica.

TheVisigothsare fleeing the Huns, entering the Eastern.

Odaenathus expels Persian garrisons and restoresSyriaand Armenia to theRoman Empire. Odaenathus invadesMesopotamia, and inflicts two defeats upon Shapur I, which ends with the sack of Ctesiphon.

Even so, the empire was still so vast that Diocletian divided it in half in 285 CE to facilitate more efficient administration. In so doing, he created theWestern Roman Empireand theEastern Roman Empire(also known as the Byzantine Empire). Since a leading cause of the Imperial Crisis was a lack of clarity in succession, Diocletian decreed that successors must be chosen and approved from the outset of an individuals rule. Two of these successors were the generals Maxentius and Constantine. Diocletian voluntarily retired from rule in 305 CE, and the tetrarchy dissolved as rival regions of the empire vied with each other for dominance. Following Diocletians death in 311 CE, Maxentius and Constantine plunged the empire again into civil war.

EmperorCommodusis murdered, civilwarensues (until 197 CE).

TheRoman Empire, at its height (c. 117 CE), was the most extensive political and social structure in westerncivilization. By 285 CE theempirehad grown too vast to be ruled from the central government atRomeand so was divided by EmperorDiocletian(284-305 CE) into a Western and an Eastern Empire. TheRomanEmpire began when(27 BCE-14 CE) became the first emperor of Rome and ended, in the west, when the lastRoman emperor, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed by the Germanic KingOdoacer(476 CE). In the east, it continued as theByzantine Empireuntil the death ofConstantineXI and the fall ofConstantinopleto the Ottoman Turks in 1453 CE. The influence of the Roman Empire on western civilization was profound in its lasting contributions to virtually every aspect of western culture.

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The legendary founding date ofRome.

Invasion and annexation of theFertile Crescentregion byRomeunderTrajan.

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Map of the Roman Empire and Celtic World

The Western Roman Empire officially ended 4 September 476 CE, when Emperor Romulus Augustus was deposed by the Germanic King Odoacer (though some historians date the end as 480 CE with the death of Julius Nepos). The Eastern Roman Empire continued on as the Byzantine Empire until 1453 CE, and though known early on as simply `the Roman Empire, it did not much resemble that entity at all. The Western Roman Empire would become re-invented later as The Holy Roman Empire, but that construct, also, was far removed from the Roman Empire of antiquity and was an `empire in name only.

Death ofJustinian Iafter 38 years ruling the.

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He is known asConstantine the Greatowing to later Christian writers who saw him as a mighty champion of their faith but, as has been noted by many historians, the honorific could as easily be attributed to his religious, cultural, and political reforms, as well as his skill in battle and his large-scale building projects. After his death, his sons inherited the empire and, fairly quickly, embarked on a series of conflicts with each other which threatened to undo all that Constantine had accomplished.

As a Neo-Platonic philosopher, Julian rejected Christianity and blamed the faith; and Constantines adherence to it, for the decline of the empire. While officially proclaiming a policy of religious tolerance, Julian systematically removed Christians from influential government positions, banned the teaching and spread of thereligion, and barred Christians from military service. His death, while on campaign against the Persians, ended the dynasty Constantine had begun. He was the last pagan emperor of Rome and came to be known as `Julian the Apostate for his opposition to Christianity.

Utica is made the capital of theRomanprovince ofAfrica.

Julius Caesarfounds theRomancolony ofCorinth.

Corcyrais made part of theRomanprovince ofMacedonia.

TheSaguntum from the Carthaginians.

Dacians invade Moesia and defeat theRomans.

Romelaunches an extensive cultural patronage and construction programme in Iberia.

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RomansinvadeBritainunder Aulus Plautius.

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Germanic tribes cross the Danube into the.

Britonrebel leader Caratacus defeated, rebellion crushed.

Romancitizenship granted to all inhabitants of theempire.

Ancient sources are universal in their praise for his handling of this disaster as well as the great fire of Rome in 80 CE. Titus died of a fever in 81 CE and was succeeded by his brotherDomitianwho ruled from 81-96 CE. Domitian expanded and secured the boundaries of Rome, repaired the damage to the city caused by the great fire, continued the building projects initiated by his brother, and improved the economy of the empire. Even so, his autocratic methods and policies made him unpopular with theRoman Senate, and he was assassinated in 96 CE.

Following theBattleof Actium in 31 BCE, GaiusOctavianThurinus,Julius Caesars nephew and heir, became the first emperor of Rome and took the name Augustus Caesar. Although Julius Caesar is often regarded as the first emperor of Rome, this is incorrect; he never held the title `Emperor but, rather, `Dictator, a title the Senate could not help but grant him, as Caesar held supreme military and political power at the time. In contrast, the Senate willingly granted Augustus the title of emperor, lavishing praise and power on him because he had destroyed Romes enemies and brought much-needed stability.

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40 maps that explain the Roman Empire

Domitians successor was his advisorNervawho founded the Nervan-Antonin Dynasty which ruled Rome 96-192 CE. This period is marked by increased prosperity owing to the rulers known as The Five Good Emperors of Rome. Between 96 and 180 CE, five exceptional men ruled in sequence and brought the Roman Empire to its height:

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Reign ofCaracallawith his fatherSeptimius Severusand his brother Geta (Feb – Dec 211 only with Geta).

Augustusmakes Gortyn the capital of theRomanprovince ofCreteCyrene.

The inventions and innovations which were generated by the Roman Empire profoundly altered the lives of the ancient people and continue to be used in cultures around the world today. Advancements in the construction of roads and buildings, indoor plumbing, aqueducts, and even fast-drying cement were either invented or improved upon by the Romans. The calendar used in the West derives from the one created by Julius Caesar, and the names of the days of the week (in the romance languages) and months of the year also come from Rome.

Vitellius proved no more fit to rule than Galba had been, as he almost instantly engaged in luxurious entertainments and feasts at the expense of his duties. The legions declared for General Vespasian as emperor and marched on Rome. Vitellius was murdered by Vespasians men, and Vespasian took power exactly one year from the day Galba had first ascended to the throne.

Romangeneral Corbulo successfully campaigns inArmenia.

Under their leadership, the Roman Empire grew stronger, more stable, and expanded in size and scope.Lucius VerusandCommodusare the last two of the Nervan-Antonin Dynasty. Verus was co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius until his death in 169 CE and seems to have been fairly ineffective. Commodus, Aurelius son and successor, was one of the most disgraceful emperors Rome ever saw and is universally depicted as indulging himself and his whims at the expense of the empire. He was strangled by his wrestling partner in his bath in 192 CE, ending the Nervan-Antonin Dynasty and raising the prefectPertinax(who most likely engineered Commodus assassination) to power.

Apartment complexes (known as `insula), public toilets, locks and keys, newspapers, even socks all were developed by the Romans as were shoes, a postal system (modeled after the Persians), cosmetics, the magnifying glass, and the concept of satire inliterature. During the time of the empire, significant developments were also advanced in the fields of medicine, law, religion, government, andwarfare. The Romans were adept at borrowing from, and improving upon, those inventions or concepts they found among the indigenous populace of the regions they conquered. It is therefore difficult to say what is an `original Roman invention and what is an innovation on a pre-existing concept, technique, or tool. It can safely be said, however, that the Roman Empire left an enduring legacy which continues to affect the way in which people live even today.

ThecityofCyrenecomes underRomancontrol.

Caracalla ruled until 217 CE, when he was assassinated by his bodyguard. It was under Caracallas reign that Roman citizenship was expanded to include all free men within the empire. This law was said to have been enacted as a means of raising tax revenue, simply because, after its passage, there were more people the central government could tax. The Severan Dynasty continued, largely under the guidance and manipulation of Julia Maesa (referred to as `empress), until the assassination ofAlexander Severusin 235 CE which plunged the empire into the chaos known as TheCrisis of the Third Century(lasting from 235-284 CE).

Italian Peninsula, 1500 CE Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

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EmperorMaximinus Thraxis governor ofMesopotamia.

EmperorMaximinus Thraxcommands a legion inEgypt.

Reign ofCaracallawith his fatherSeptimius Severus.

Egyptbecomes province of theRoman empire.

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Plague epidemic in theRoman empire.

In 312 CE Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge and became sole emperor of both the Western and Eastern Empires (ruling from 306-337 CE). Believing thatJesus Christwas responsible for his victory, Constantine initiated a series of laws such as the Edict of Milan (317 CE) which mandated religious tolerance throughout the empire and, specifically, tolerance for the faith which came to known as Christianity.

A freelance writer and former part-time Professor of Philosophy at Marist College, New York, Joshua J. Mark has lived in Greece and Germany and traveled through Egypt. He has taught history, writing, literature, and philosophy at the college level.

After the brief rule of Jovian, who re-established Christianity as the dominant faith of the empire and repealed Julians various edicts, the responsibility of emperor fell to Theodosius I. Theodosius I (379-395 CE) took Constantines and Jovians religious reforms to their natural ends, outlawed pagan worship throughout the empire, closed the schools and universities, and converted pagan temples into Christian churches.

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Aureliansuccessfully campaigns against Palmyra.

Aureliandefends theagainst Juthungi, Alamanni, and Marcomanni incursions.

His three sons, Constantine II,Constantius II, and Constans divided the Roman Empire between them but soon fell to fighting over which of them deserved more. In these conflicts, Constantine II and Constans were killed. Constantius II died later after naming his cousin Julian his successor and heir. Emperor Julian ruled for only two years (361-363 CE) and, in that time, tried to return Rome to her former glory through a series of reforms aimed at increasing efficiency in government.

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Emperor Theodosius closes pagantemples.

The Romans. End of the Carthaginian presence on the Iberian Peninsula.

Picts, Scots,Saxons, andFranksattack theRoman Empire.

The Lusitani are betrayed and slaughtered by the Romans.

The Rhine River is established as the boundary between the Latin and German speaking worlds, following the defeat of theRoman army, under the command of Varus, at theBattleof the Teutoburg Forest.

Galatiais peacefully absorbed into the.

Augustus ruled the empire from 31 BCE until 14 CE when he died. In that time, as he said himself, he found Rome a city of clay but left it a city of marble. Augustus reformed the laws of the city and, by extension, the empires, secured Romes borders, initiated vast building projects (carried out largely by his faithful general Agrippa, who built the firstPantheon), and secured the empire a lasting name as one of the greatest, if not the greatest, political and cultural powers in history. ThePax Romana(Roman Peace), also known as the Pax Augusta, which he initiated, was a time of peace and prosperity hitherto unknown and would last over 200 years.

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